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culture of indonesia
Culture of Indonesia

Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups each with cultural differences which have shifted over the centuries and the concept of Indonesian culture is a fusion of this diversity. One example is the Borobudur temple, which is a mix of Hinduism and Javanese culture, as it was built by a Javanese dynasty, the Sailendra. Indonesia has also imported cultural aspects from Arabic, Chinese, Malay and European sources.

Art forms in Indonesia have been influenced by several cultures. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology as does the Javanese and Balinese wayang kulit shadow puppet shows, depicting several mythological events. Cloth such as batik, ikat and songket are created across Indonesia with different areas having different styles and specialisations. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian, however, European architecture has had a significant influence, particularly from the 19th century. Pencak Silat is a unique martial art originating from the archipelago.

The 9th century Buddhist monument, Borobudur in Central Java

Indonesian music varies within cities and groups as people who live in the countryside would listen to a different kind of music than people in the city. Although rock was introduced in Indonesia by Indonesian rock band, God Bless (see Ian Antono),native Indonesian music is still preserved. Examples of Indonesian traditional music are Gamelan and Keroncong. A more modern form of Indonesian native music is Dangdut. The movie industry's popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia,[although it fell significantly in the early 1990s.For instance, in 1990, 115 local movies were produced while only 37 movies produced in 1993. However, as of the year 2000, the movie industry has improved gradually with a number of successful movies.

Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media.The TV market includes 10 national commercial networks, which compete with public TVRI. Some provinces also operate their own stations. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters can supply programmes. The radio dial is crowded, with scores of stations on the air in Jakarta alone. Internet use is increasing Bisnis Indonesia reported in 2004 that there were 10 million users.

a wayang kulit shadow puppet performance as seen by the audience
A Wayang kulit shadow puppet performance as seen by the audience

Balinese boys in Ubud

Minangkabau woman in traditional dress

Minangkabau woman in traditional dress

education of indonesia
Education of Indonesia

Early childhood

From birth until the age of 5, Indonesian children do not generally have access to formal education. From the age of 5 to 6 or 7, they attend kindergarten (Taman Kanak-kanak). This education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizen, as most of the intention of this is to prepare them for primary school. These days, most kindergartens are owned by a private school, with more than 49 thousands kindergartens, 99.35% of the total kindergartens in Indonesia[1]. The kindergarten years are usually divided into 2, "Class A" and "Class B" with a year of each class.

  • Elementary School
  • Children ages 7-12 attend Sekolah Dasar (SD) (literally Elementary School). This level of education is compulsory for all Indonesian citizens, based on the national constitution. Quite different with kindergartens in Indonesia, the most elementary schools are owned by the government, or public school, with 93% of all elementary schools. Similar to education in the U.S. and Australia, all students have to study for 6 years to pass this level, although some schools have offered an acceleration program, where students can finish the elementary school for just 5 years. This can be done with students with a higher intelligence quotient or IQ.
  • High School
  • Based on the national constitution, Indonesian citizens do not have to attend high school as the citizens only require 9 years of education. This is also reflected by the number of high schools in Indonesia, with just slightly below 9,000 schools
  • Tertiary education
  • After graduation from High school or college, students may attend a university.
an elementary school uniform in indonesia
An elementary school uniform in Indonesia
  • Middle School
  • Middle School, generally known by the acronym 'SMP' (Sekolah Menengah Pertama) is part of primary education in Indonesia. Students attend Middle School for three years from the age of 13-15. After three years of schooling and graduation, students may move on to High School or College, or cease formal education. There are around 22,000 schools in Indonesia with a balanced ownership between public and private sector
war in indonesia
War in Indonesia

In Indonesia history, there was happen a lot of war, war to seize our country independence from colonialism, to defend our country from external threat and to put down rebellion

The war before Independence was sporadic and tribalistic struggle,

While most of our people against the Dutch colonialization in our country,

many chose to colaborate with Dutch to capture our own battle leader,

We not yet had sense of nationalism,

Prince Diponegoro, fighting against Dutch occupation

In Indonesia, later captured by trapped on negotiation

The Dutch colonial presence in Indonesia existed in various forms for over 300 years until the Japanese occupation in the second World War.During the war, Sukarno, a popular leader of the Indonesian Nationalist Party, cooperated with the occupying Japanese with the intention of strengthening the independence movement.On August 17, 1945, Sukarno, with the Japanese organized National Committee of Independence (BPUPKI) unilaterally declared Indonesian independence.