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USGBC MGBCE CONFERENCE 2011. Building Performance Beyond Completion: Lessons Learned for Better Building Design. Orla Williams, Buro Happold 14 th April 2011. Contents. Basic Commissioning Enhanced Commissioning Measurement & Verification Post Occupancy Evaluation

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usgbc mgbce conference 2011

USGBC MGBCE CONFERENCE 2011

Building Performance Beyond Completion: Lessons Learned for Better Building Design

Orla Williams, Buro Happold

14th April 2011

contents
Contents
  • Basic Commissioning
  • Enhanced Commissioning
  • Measurement & Verification
  • Post Occupancy Evaluation
  • Closing the loop and feeding it all back into design
basic commissioning leed
Basic Commissioning & LEED
  • Basic Commissioning is required for all LEED Version 3 projects under EA prerequisite 1- Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems
  • Basic Commissioning also prerequisite for CalGreen 2010 Code
  • Intent – to verify that the project’s energy-related systems are installed, calibrated and perform according to the owner’s project requirements, basis of design and construction documents
basic commissioning requirements
Basic Commissioning Requirements
  • Appointment of commissioning authority (CxA) to lead, review and oversee the completion of the commissioning process activities
  • Owner must document the project requirements
  • Design team produces Basis of Design
  • Develop & incorporate commissioning requirements into construction documents
  • Develop commissioning plan
  • Verify installation & performance of systems to be commissioned
  • Complete a summary commissioning report
minimum commissioned systems
Minimum Commissioned Systems
  • Commissioning required for the following installed systems:
    • Mechanical and passive Heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration systems and associated controls
    • Lighting & daylighting controls
    • Domestic hot water systems
    • Renewable energy systems
lawrence berkley national laboratories commissioning survey
Lawrence Berkley National Laboratories Commissioning Survey
  • Renewable Commissioning is arguably the single-most cost-effective strategy for reducing energy, costs, and greenhouse-gas emissions in buildings today.
  • Median commissioning costs: $0.30/ft2 and $1.16/ft2 for existing buildings and new construction, respectively (and 0.4% of total construction costs for new buildings).
  • Median whole-building energy savings: 16% and 13%and median payback times:1.1 and 4.2 years.
  • Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings, and five-times the savings of projects with a constrained approach.
  • Annual energy-savings potential of $30 billion by the year 2030, and 360 MT CO2-eq emissions reductions.
enhanced commissioning
Enhanced Commissioning
  • EA Credit 3 under LEED Version 3 – 2 Credits Available
  • Intent – to begin the commissioning early in the design process and execute additional activities after system performance verification is completed
  • Enhanced commissioning includes:
      • Full Operation & Maintenance (O&M) Manuals
      • Minimum one design review prior to 50% CD by commissioning authority
      • Review construction contractor submittals,
      • Ensure that training on systems operation and OMR&R has been provided.
      • Site review 8-10 months after completion
benefits of enhanced commissioning
Benefits of Enhanced Commissioning
  • More input into design phase of commissioning requirements
  • Cost to resolve potential commissioning difficulties reduced if caught in design phase
  • Production of operation and maintenance (O&M) manual helps owner maintain building according to the design intent through out the life of the building
measurement verification
Measurement & Verification
  • EA Credit 5 under LEED Version 3 – 3 points for NC
  • Intent – to provide for the ongoing accountability of building energy consumption over time
what is involved with m v
What is involved with M&V?
  • Stage 1 – Metering infrastructure
    • Additional meters can be provided in design for M&V
  • Stage 2 – Development of M&V Plan
    • Documented plan for verification of energy performance
  • Stage 3 – Post completion implementation
    • Analysis of 1 year of energy consumption
    • Development of calibrated energy simulation
    • Recommendations for optimization
m v plans
M&V Plans
  • Development of an M&V Plan typically requires the addition of gas sub meters, electrical sub-meters and water sub-meters which may impact design costs for the project.
  • The building management systems are also typically utilized to provide some energy performance data for the plan.
  • The development and implementation of an M&V plan is recommended as a means to ensure energy usage (and associated cost) is minimized through the life of the building.
beyond m v
Beyond M&V
  • M&V provides invaluable information which can be used by facilities staff to improve the efficiency of a building
  • The most cost efficient way to approach this is during the design phase
  • By linking the BMS to a Building Dashboard System, the facilities team are given an interface into their systems, to monitor, adjust and refine their system
  • Greatest post completion energy savings are from continual monitoring and refinement of the building systems
building dashboard system
Building Dashboard System

Proposed Building Dashboards

  • Recycled Water System
  • Renewable Energy System
  • Building Energy Consumption

Additional Requirements beyond M&V

  • Pulsed meter tie in for utility meters requires coordination with Civil
  • Possible additional electrical sub-metering
  • Possible additional data sensing of the solar thermal system
post occupancy evaluation poe
Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)
  • First introduced in the 1960’s
  • The aim of POE is to assess the complete building and its performance in use, taking account of the users’ perspectives
  • Requires action not just recommendations
  • Also called soft landings
what s in a poe
What’s in a POE?
  • Occupant feedback:
    • questionnaires, workshops, interviews
  • Expert panel review / walkthrough
  • Environmental conditions monitoring
  • Space analysis
  • Time utilisation studies
  • Cost analysis
  • Sustainability assessment
  • Technical & architectural reviews
why poe
Why POE?
  • Measuring project success and value
  • Design feedback
  • Inform the design process and focus expenditure
  • Proactive building management
  • Change management and communications
poe methods

PROBE

Interviews &

Workshops

TUSTM

JCI

IPM

POE Methods

DEGW

CIBSE TM22 EARM

BUS Survey

ZZA

Responsible User

Environments

Johnson

Controls

ZZA

Survey

Ryders

Survey

CIBSE

TM23

Air Leakage

Interviews &

Workshops

JCI

Occupancy

Evaluation

Indoor

Climate

Space

Utilisation

Ryders

Occupant Evaluation

Methodology

ABS

OLS

Expert

Walkthrough

Time

Utilisation

Survey

SHCA

Performance

Measurement

SHCA WES

Workspace

Analysis

Interviews &

Workshops

OPN Index

OPN Survey

Workspace

Analysis

AMA

Workware

Interviews &

Workshops

AMA

Questionnaire

Storage

& Furniture

Audit

DQI

(In-use)

IPD

WPA

BRE

Checklist

IPD

ITOCC

AMA

SOS

AMA Space

Analysis

OGC

FREE

BREEAM

(pre-evaluation)

RICS / IPD TSI

Package

Technical

Cost

Space

Expert

Occupant

poe surveys
POE Surveys
  • Temperature
  • Ventilation / air quality
  • Lighting
  • Privacy
  • Noise
  • Desk space
  • Storage
  • Informal / breakout
  • Formal meeting
  • Layout
  • Productivity / performance
  • Overall satisfaction
  • Work patterns / mobility
  • Most important
  • Support of work activities
  • Facilities and amenities
  • Sustainability
  • Base build
slide26

5 School POE Case Study

Location: Liverpool

Size: 7900m2

Environmental Specialism, PV, Solar thermal, rainwater recycling. ETFE solar atrium.

N

Location: Bristol

Size: 13000m2

Sports Specialism, lighting controls throughout. High level of mechanical plant due to acoustic issues on site

Location: Nottingham

Size: 7715m2

Specialises in ICT – “most technologically advanced school in the country”, cooling and mechanical servicing. Built prior to BB93 regulations.

buildings continued
Buildings - Continued

Location: East London

Size: 10670m2

Very first Academy, entirely open plan teaching rooms. Open ethos to avoid serious cases of bullying. Business specialism. Built prior to BB93 acoustic regulations.

N

Location: West London

Size: 10529m2

Specialises in sports, second academy to open. Built prior to BB93 acoustic regulations.

normalized electrical loads
Normalized Electrical Loads

125 kWh/m2

98 kWh/m2

66 kWh/m2

poe case study energy conclusions
POE Case Study Energy Conclusions
  • Appropriate controls that default to ‘OFF’ or ‘Low power’ are the main difference between Academies;
  • Big opportunity to save energy through well daylit classrooms, large circulation spaces and halls with appropriate dimming controls – requires dual aspect and/or roof lights;
  • Heating demand is reduced through a good decentralised strategy and moderate to good insulation, however carbon emissions are dominated by electricity for most schools;
  • Demand controlled ventilation with air-quality sensing should be considered;
  • Decentralised systems for domestic hot water appeared to perform better than a centralised strategy;
  • Management protocols for reducing wastage from IT and Catering are also vital for a genuinely low carbon school;
closing the loops
Closing the Loops
  • Improving new designs by learning the lessons of existing buildings
  • Ensure equipment is sized appropriately
  • Identify opportunities for diversity of systems
  • Using POE data where there is little design data available
soccer stadium poe
Soccer Stadium POE
  • Stadiums are designed for large irregular peaks
  • Water storage capacity needs to meet match day peak
  • Peak only last 2-3 hours and is defined by pre-match, half time and post-match peaks
  • Requires large infrastructure for short large uses
new stadium water design
New Stadium Water Design
  • Very little data available on design of water services for stadiums
  • Wanted to minimize cost of upgrading water main for new stadium
  • Wanted to use recycled water to minimize potable water requirements
  • Wanted to use lessons learnt from previous stadium experience for new projects
case 1 constant inflow no water reduction measures

Demand Pattern without potable water reduction measures.

Storage Tanks refill to top water

level by 07:00 next day

Case 1 – Constant Inflow & No Water Reduction Measures

Constant Inflow

From TW 4l/s

Minimum water level in 200m3 tanks 0.5 m

Kick Off 17:30

case 2 no inflow water reduction measures

Demand Pattern without potable water reduction measures.

Case 2 – No Inflow & Water Reduction Measures

Reduced Demand Pattern with

potable water reduction measures.

With improved pre-match water management,

200m3 tanks could cope with capacity match

No Inflow From TW

Kick Off 17:30

case 3 no inflow no water reduction measures

Demand Pattern without potable water reduction measures.

Case 3 – No Inflow & No Water Reduction Measures

Case 3 – No Inflow and No Water Reduction Measures

Shows the risk that if potable water reduction measures are not implemented, that in a situation with no incoming supply from Thames Water (for example if the mains failed or burst), that a 200m3 storage tank would probably be empty soon after match kick-off.

200m3 tanks empty

soon after match kick-off

No Inflow From TW

Kick Off 17:30

conclusions recommendations
Conclusions & Recommendations
  • Basic commissioning is a prerequisite of LEED Version 3
  • Enhanced Commissioning provides an opportunity to further improve the building performance and future use
  • Measurement & Verification provides accountability for the ongoing energy use over time
  • M&V can be used by facilities staff as a tool to refine and optimize the building
  • POE brings in the human element into commissioning and provides opportunities to resolve in-use issues
  • Closing the loop – designers need to learn the lessons from completed buildings
  • Designers need to use the data from existing buildings as a design tool to produce more efficient buildings with less faults in commissioning and use
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