natural history of francisella tularensis l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Tularemia PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Tularemia

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Tularemia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 653 Views
  • Uploaded on

Natural History of Francisella tularensis. Tularemia. History. Leviticus 11:6-7 But you shall not eat any of the following that only chew the cud or only have hoofs ... the hare, which indeed chews the cud, but does not have hoofs and is therefore unclean for you

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Tularemia' - liam


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
natural history of francisella tularensis
Natural History of

Francisellatularensis

Tularemia
history
History
  • Leviticus 11:6-7
    • But you shall not eat any of the following that only chew the cud or only have hoofs ... the hare, which indeed chews the cud, but does not have hoofs and is therefore unclean for you
  • Wherry WB, Lamb BH. Infection of man with Bacterium tularense. J Infect Dis 1914l 15:331-40
    • first description of human tularemia with culture of causative organism
  • Francis E. A summary of the present knowledge of tularemia. Medicine (Baltimore) 1928;7:411-32.
    • clinical and epidemiological study of >600 human cases
pathogen francisella tularensis
Pathogen – Francisella tularensis
  • Gram negative non-motile non-sporulating cocco-bacillus
  • Reservoir unknown
    • free living protozoa?
  • Infects small mammals
    • ground squirrels, rabbits, hares, voles, muskrats, water rats and other rodents
  • Arthropod vectors
    • ticks, biting flies, mosquitoes
  • Uncommon zoonosis
    • 125 cases/year in USA
    • farmers, hunters, walkers, forest workers
    • kills less than 50 people a year worldwide
bioterrorism 1
Bioterrorism (1)
  • Category A agents
    • bacterial
      • Francisella tularensis (tularemia)
      • Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
      • Yersinia pestis (plague)
      • Clostridium botulinum (botulism)
    • viral
      • Variola major (smallpox)
      • Viral hemorrhagic fever (ebola, marburg, lassa, argentine)
bioterrorism 2
Bioterrorism (2)
  • Tested by Japan in WWII as potential bioweapon
  • Weaponised and stockpiled by USA and USSR during Cold War
  • Epidemics (probably natural causes)
    • Battle of Stalingrad 1942-1943
    • Kosovo 1999 (327 cases, no fatalities)
    • Recurrent outbreaks on Martha's vineyard (cause unknown)
subspecies
Subspecies
  • F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Type A)
    • LD50 ~ 1(mice)
    • LD50 < 102 (humans)
  • F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (Type B)
    • LD50 > 106 (rabbits)
  • F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica
  • F. tularensis subsp. novicida
transmission
Transmission
  • Highly infectious
    • inhalation of 10 bacteria can cause disease
  • Avenues
    • ingestion (water and food)
    • inhalation
    • direct contact
    • arthropod intermediates
    • animal bites
  • No person to person spread
vectors in america
Vectors in America

Tick

East of Rocky Mountains

Biting fly

Utah, Nevada, California

disease forms
Disease Forms
  • Ulceroglandular (<5% mortality untreated)
  • Oculoglandular
  • Typhoidal syndrome (30-60% mortality untreated)
  • Oropharyngeal
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Secondary pneumonia
  • Primary inhalational pneumonia
clinical disease
Clinical Disease
  • Ulceroglandular
    • Incubation period 3-6 days
    • Sudden onset flu like symptoms
    • Ulcer at site of infection
    • Enlargement of draining nodes
  • Typhoidal syndrome
    • septicemia without ulcer or lymphadenopathy
  • Oropharyngeal
    • sore throat, enlarged tonsils, yellow-white pseudomembrane
  • Gastrointestinal
    • persistent diarrhea, bowel ulceration -> acute fatal disease
  • Pneumonia
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Culture
    • high risk to laboratory personnel
  • Non-culture methods
    • Serology
      • ELISA
      • micro-agglutination
      • Western blot
      • flow cytometry
      • indirect immunofluorescence
    • PCR
treatment
Treatment
  • Recommended
    • Streptomycin
    • Gentamicin
  • Oral medication
    • Fluroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin)
  • Mortality -> 0
  • Reduce debilitating features of disease
vaccines
Vaccines
  • Live vaccines
    • F. tularensis LVS
    • water rat -> USSR -> USAMRIID (1956)
    • Use halted by FDA 2001
  • Problems
    • protects against inhalational but not cutaneous disease
    • protective response not well understood
    • basis of attenuation not known
    • potential for reversion
  • No effective killed bacterial or subtype vaccine
model organism
Model Organism
  • Animal models available
  • Cell culture models available
  • Live vaccine strain available
  • Grows rapidly in vivo and in vitro
  • Genome sequencing in progress
  • Public health interest
host pathogen 0
Host-pathogen (0)

Intracellular living

1. Cell Entry

2. Replication

  • cytoplasmic
  • phagosomal
  • phagolysosomal

3. Cell Exit

host pathogen 1
Host-Pathogen (1)
  • Obligate intracellular pathogen
    • macrophages, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts
  • Entry pathway unknown
    • no respiratory burst
    • complement/complement receptor dependent?
  • Intracellular residence
    • first 4 hours -> non-acidified phagosome
    • after 8 hours -> cytoplasm
  • Doubling time in macrophages is 4-6 hours
host pathogen 2
Host-Pathogen (2)
  • Inhibits NF-kB and MAPK activation by TLR ligation
  • Evade phagosome-lysosome fusion
  • No evidence for secreted toxins
  • Induces apoptosis in murine macrophages
virulence factors
Virulence Factors
  • Atypical LPS
    • elicits 1000-fold less TNF and IL-1 than E. coli
  • Capsule
    • prevents serum-mediated lysis
  • Pili
    • adherence, cell-cell interactions, biofilm formation
  • Proteins
    • pathogenicity island (FPI) recently discovered
    • mglA, mglB transcriptional regulator
    • mglA positively regulates pdpA, pdpD, iglA, iglC, and iglD genes
    • iglC (23 kD protein) disrupts TLR signaling
  • Other components
    • 'phosphoantigens' expand gd-T cells (significance unknown)
francisella pathogenecity island fpi
Francisella Pathogenecity Island (FPI)

1. 30 kb cluster of genes encoding virulence factors

2. flanked by transposable elements

3. G+C content significantly different from rest of chromosome

immunology 1
Immunology (1)
  • Early (<3 days) response is T cell independent
    • infected macrophages -> TNF-a
    • TNF-a -> NK cells -> IFN-g
    • IFN-g -> infected macrophage -> NO
  • Late (>3 days) and secondary response is T cell dependent
    • Th1 response
    • CD4+, CD8+ and Thy1+ CD4-CD8- T cells cells important
    • IFN-g, TNF-a, RNS, ROS
    • Role of perforin, Fas-FasL cell killing unknown
  • Others
    • gd-T cells expanded
    • Antibodies probably minor role
    • Neutrophils can phagocytose opsonized bacteria but poor killing
immunology 2
Immunology (2)
  • Infection confers long-lasting immunity – may be partial
    • Edward Francis infected at least 3 times
  • Each immune individual recognises a mosaic of antigens
  • No immunodominant antigens identified
    • Orchestration of the protective immune response to intracellular bacteria: Francisella tularensis as a model organism. FEMS Immunol Med Microb, 1996, 13:221-225
genome
Genome
  • 1 partial annotation published
    • Preliminary analysis and annotation of the partial genome sequence of Francisella tularensis strain Schu 4. J Appl Microbiol. 2001 Oct;91(4):614-20
    • Predicted ORFs with no match in GenBank much higher than other microbial genomes
    • No matches with known virulence genes in other pathogens
  • 2 preliminary genome sequences completed
    • http://bbrp.llnl.gov/bbrp/html/microbe.html (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
    • http://artedi.ebc.uu.se/Projects/Francisella/ (Uppsala University)
transcriptome
Transcriptome
  • Samrakandi MM et al, Genome diversity among regional populations of Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis and Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica isolated from the US, FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004 Aug 1;237(1):9-17.
  • Broekhuijsen M et al, Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of Francisella tularensis strains demonstrates extensive genetic conservation within the species but identifies regions that are unique to the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jul;41(7):2924-31.
proteome
Proteome
  • Papers
    • Hubalek M et al, Proteomics. 2004 Oct;4(10):3048-60.
    • Hubalek M et al, J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Apr 5;787(1):149-77.
    • Havlasova J et al, Proteomics. 2002 Jul;2(7):857-67.
    • Kovarova H et al, Proteomics. 2002 Jan;2(1):85-93.
    • Hernychova L et al, Proteomics. 2001 Apr;1(4):508-15.
  • 2D PAGE Databases
    • http://web.mpiib-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/pdbs/2d-page/extern/index.cgi
  • 3D protein structure
    • http://pat.sdsc.edu/perl/browser.pl?tax=Francisella%20tularensis&tid=263
references
References
  • J Infect Dis, 2004, 189:1317-1331
  • Clin Microb Rev, 2002, 15:631-646
  • Trends Microb, 2003, 11:118-123
  • Curr Opin Microb, 2003, 6:66-71
  • Lancet, 2000, 356:1179-1182
  • Infect Immun, 2004 72:3204-3217
  • J Bacteriol, 2004,186:6430-6436