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PRTM/Geog 430--Introduction Three forms of the national park and equivalent reserve Landscape Model Wildlife Model Cultural Model The Landscape Model Other names--American Model, The Yellowstone Model Conservation Objective--Monumental Landscapes, wildlife is secondary

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PRTM/Geog 430--Introduction


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prtm geog 430 introduction
PRTM/Geog 430--Introduction
  • Three forms of the national park and equivalent reserve
  • Landscape Model
  • Wildlife Model
  • Cultural Model
the landscape model
The Landscape Model
  • Other names--American Model, The Yellowstone Model
  • Conservation Objective--Monumental Landscapes, wildlife is secondary
  • Infrastructure characteristics--high visitation; high accessibility; great investment in infrastructure; high maintenance costs; dependent on a mobile, wealthy local, regional and national population; typically low international visitation; lots of recreation
  • Found in USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa
  • Nearest--Great Smoky Mountain National Park
wildlife model
Wildlife Model
  • Also--African model, game park, safari park
  • Conservation objective--wildlife, landscape beauty is not expected or required
  • Infrastructure Characteristics--lower accessibility; low visitation; poor local population; long-haul, high costs, international tourism; low infrastructure costs; low service provision; little recreation
  • Found in Africa, poor Third World Countries, Canada, Alaska
  • Nearest--Everglades National Park
cultural model
Cultural Model
  • Conservation object--cultural/natural landscapes in their entirety
  • Attempts to freeze land use development at a particular point in time
  • Government land ownership low, high private land ownership
  • PVO or NGO involvement and administration is often high
  • High use, lots of recreation, low direct infrastructure investment
  • Nearest--Really none in the USA. Anarondacks State Park, Cades Cove and Williamsburg come close.
origins of american national parks
Origins of American National Parks
  • Conventional Wisdom: National parks began in the USA with the designation of Yellowstone NP in 1872
  • From there they diffused around the world
  • Proponent: Rodrick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind
diffusion theory
Diffusion Theory
  • Attacks the problem: how does something new, an innovation, spread
  • Requires:
    • an innovation (national park)
    • an adopter
    • a route of transmission
    • in very few cases has a route of transmission been demonstrated
      • Carl Akeley and Virungas NP, Belgium Congo, 1925
    • in any event, if nothing was invented at Yellowstone there is nothing to transmit
slide7
To have a national park you must have a nation. Nations are a relatively new invention.
  • King Asoka--5th Century Buddhist India
  • These things lead nowhere, however
  • I suggest that what invented at Yellowstone in 1872 was the name “national park”
  • The name has diffused around the world and has been applied to a variety of dissimilar land institutions.
  • The real contribution of the USA comes in 1916 with the creation of the US National Park Service
slide8
Things called national parks start cropping up around the world in the last quarter of the 19th century.
  • Specifically: USA, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand
  • National parks as a solution to conservation problems are not obvious.
  • Therefore, the question: wherein did English speaking people come up with the idea of parks.
  • Probably need to turn to English ideas of land and the laws that surround land.
english land law
English Land Law
  • England Prior to 1066--Anglo-saxons
  • 1066 England conquered and united by William, Duke of Normandy
  • In the USA, who takes the place of the sovereign
  • Public domain
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Disposal of the public domain--veterns of the federal army and state malitias (Revolutionary War), sold, given in small parcels to yoemen farmers, to the new states to off set the cost of providing public services (common schools, colleges, prisons, state capitol)
  • Until the 1870s there is no tradition that the Federal Government will retain public land for other than minor purposes much less for conservation or recreation
slide10
Exceptions
    • Arkansas Hot Springs, 1832. “…for the recreation and pleasure of the people. Why a hot spring.
    • Mariposa Grove given to California in perpetuity, 1864
      • eventually reverts to federal government as the basis for Yosemite NP

The problem with Yellowston NP was there was no state to give it to and there was not like to be any time in the near future,

The Montana Situation in the 1870s. Helena.

slide11
Areas formed in decades after Yellowstone
    • 1879--Royal National Park, NSW
    • 1894--Ru-Ring-Gai Chase, NSW
    • 1885--Banff NP, Canada (its sister park, Glacier, not formed until 1910)
    • 1880-90s--10 areas in Natal and Cape Province, SA of which the most important is East London Coast Forest, 1887

AMERICAN LAND POLICY TO ABOUT 1870--THERE WILL BE NO EXTENSIVE FEDERAL RETENTION OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN.

BY 1870s THERE IS A NEW IDEA THAT LAND FROM THE PUBLIC DOMAIN CAN AND WILL BE RETAINED FOR AMONG OTHER THINGS, CONSERVATION AND RECREATION

SOMETHING CHANGED IN THE NATIONAL ATTITUDE…

But what and why?????????

world views artistic
World views--artistic

Shift in world view as reflected in popular culture. A product of literary movements in mostly the late 19th century.

  • Classicism--background. This stresses formality and style over message. How reflected in art, architecture, literature, music and formal gardens.
  • Romanticism--reaction to the formalism of classicism. Appreciates the wild and unpredictable, “noble savages,” peasants, nationalism, animals. “Commune with nature” as long as nature isn’t too nasty.
  • Transcendentalism--almost unique American reaction to romanticism.
    • Man holds in himself a spark of the define, man is prefectable (R. W. Emerson)
    • Contact with civilization keeps us from realizing our define nature; therefore go to the wilderness (H. D. Thoreau, WALDEN, 1854)
change in scientific philosophy
Change in Scientific Philosophy
  • Western scientific and religious traditions weren’t big on change until about the 1850s. Greek science held that anything that changes can’t be explained. Religious tradition--God made it, saw that it was good and that pretty well ended the story.
  • Charles Darwin (1859)--demonstrated change in geology and biology and that the only thing worth study is change.
  • Darwin’s ideas slow to penetrate America and not well received in popular culture when it did.
  • Indpendent realization of environmental change--George Perkins Marsh, MAN AND NATURE; OR PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AS MODIFIED BY MAN (1864).
  • John Wesley Powell (explorer of the Colorado River)--argues for interference to control environment change.
political necessity of wilderness
Political Necessity of Wilderness
  • Fredrick Jackson Turner, 1890s, Frontier Thesis
    • Frontier is fundamental to American Democracy
    • Had provided a safety valve for urban problems
    • By 1890, frontier has disappeared
    • Worried about what would become of us without a frontier
    • Solution, though Turner never argued this, is to preserve remnants of the frontier in, say, parks, for example.
things shared with others creating national parks
Things shared with others creating national parks
  • English speaking
  • English colonial heritage
  • English legal traditions
  • Frontier experience--settlers
  • Exposed to science--Darwin
  • All had developed some idea of interference in natural process
  • All experienced serious conflict with “native” peoples
  • All held “native” claims to land in distane
  • All are big by European standards
  • All had a metropol or core to turn to for advice and direction
  • Parks are initially, thereby, a movement in the English speaking colonial world rather than and innovation that diffused from Yellowstone
what parks are intended to do
What Parks Are Intended to Do
  • In a world of hungry people, it simply won’t do to say you need parks, because having parks is the right thing.
  • Parks must do something in and for the society they are in.
  • They must do at least one important thing and the more the better.
  • An individual park need not and cannot do all things that parks do.
  • There may be considerable difference between what a park does as a matter of law, and what it does in fact.
  • So what do parks do?
what parks do
What parks do
  • Conservation--wildlife (mammals, birds, primates), natural landscapes, cultural landscapes, topographic features, paleontological features, archaeoloical resources, historic and cultural remains, vegetation, habitat, genetic material, diversity, WATER (but never mineral resources).
  • Recreation--for citizens and/or for foreign visitors
  • Economic development--spur the local economy and/or earn foreign currency
  • Education--instructional; research (natural lab, for comparison with modified areas, so you can manage the park better*)
  • Political--space filling, distinguish ‘us’ from them, prove maturity in the family of nations, provided a focus for cohesion, or
  • Just don’t know what else to do with the place
international organization

International Organization

For

National Parks and Equivalent Reserves

things the iucn does search for a definitive regional geography of life
Things the IUCN doesSearch for a definitive regional geography of life
  • IUCN’s highest priority is to make sure there is at least one area preserved in each of the Earth’s biogeographical regions.
  • But there is no absolute biogeographical regionalization of the Earth.
  • For example, regional patterns differ if the classification is based on plants (slow mobility) or animals (rapid mobility).
  • But if you want to preserve one of each have to come to some agreement on what each is.
  • Work begun by R.F. Dasmann and “completed” by M. Udvardy
  • Work based on “diagnostic” species--e.g. cactus only in New World, no deer in sub-Saharan Africa, eucalyptus in Australia only, etc.
iucn s geographic organization
IUCN’s Geographic Organization
  • Realms (Nearctic, Paleioarctic, Afrotropical, etc.) defined by diagnostics.
  • Realms divided into 14 biome types, for example, humid tropics. Biome types DO NOT have geographical location.
  • Realms also divided into biogeographical provinces defined by diagnostic species and these have a distinct locations
characteristics of afrotropical realm for example
Characteristics of Afrotropical Realm, For Example
  • Hence for example the Afrotropical realm is a place that has hares but no rabbits, lots of antelope but no deer and no wolves, no cactus but lots of euphorbia among other things that distinguish it from say North American (or the Neartic).
  • It could have up to 14 biome types but among these the ice cap biome is fairly limited.
  • It happens to have 35 Biogeographical Provinces
  • For example, the Humid Tropical biome has 3 biogeographical provinces-the Guinean Forest, Congo Forest and Malagasy Forest.
  • Desert are Western & Eastern Sahel, Somalian, Namib, Kalahari and Karoo
  • The IUCN likes to number these things. They look like this behind a park name: IV.7.21
characteristics of afrotropical realm for example23
Characteristics of Afrotropical Realm, For Example
  • Hence for example the Afrotropical realm is a place that has hares but no rabbits, lots of antelope but no deer and no wolves, no cactus but lots of euphorbia among other things that distinguish it from say North American (or the Neartic).
  • It could have up to 14 biome types but among these the ice cap biome is fairly limited.
  • It happens to have 35 Biogeographical Provinces
  • For example, the Humid Tropical biome has 3 biogeographical provinces-the Guinean Forest, Congo Forest and Malagasy Forest.
  • Desert are Western & Eastern Sahel, Somalian, Namib, Kalahari and Karoo
  • The IUCN likes to number these things. They look like this behind a park name: IV.7.21
still other things the iucn does
Still other things the IUCN does
  • Maintains office in Gland, Switzerland
  • Maintains World Conservation Monitoring Unit, Cambridge, England
  • Publishes directories of national parks and protected areas
  • Maintains the international RED BOOK-listing of rare, endangered and threatened species of the world
  • Holds international conference every 5 years
  • Coordinates, as far as possible, activities of NGOs, Gos but has no regulatory power
  • Stimulates and coordinates consultancy
  • Maintains a directory of consultants (Dep’t of Social Forestry, School of Forestry, University of Finland)
  • Publishes results of consultancies and meetings
  • Defines parks
so what does the iucn say is national park is
So what does the IUCN say is national park is?
  • National park>national park and equivalent reserve>protected area
  • A national park is:
    • a large area
    • containing one or more ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation
    • contains animal populations, geomorphic sites, and habitats of special scientific, educative and receptive interests or landscapes of great natural beauty
    • sovereign has taken steps to prevent & eliminate exploitation and occupation of the area and to ensure respect for the conserved areas
    • visitors are allowed to enter for inspirational, educative, cultural & recreative purposes
things not national parks
Things not national parks
  • Strict nature reserves
  • Places managed by private institutions or lower government authorities
  • Special reserves--forest reserves, game reserves, etc
  • Recreation areas or areas where recreation takes priority over ecological concerns
examples from south carolina
Examples from South Carolina
  • IUCN directory lists 10 sites in SC=69,603 A. or 109 mi2
  • NPS--8.8% (Congaree Swamp)
  • USFS--7.4% (Ellicott Rock)
  • 83.8%--FWS (Cape Romain)
convention concerning the protection of the world s cultural and natural heritage paris 1972
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage, Paris, 1972

Program is run by UNESCO

Cultural Heritage Areas

-Landscapes designed and created intentionally by humans

-Organically evolved landscape

*Relict or fossil landscape

*Continuing landscape

-Associative cultural landscape

Natural Heritage Areas criteria

-outstanding example of evolutionary history

-outstanding example of geol process , biol evolution or man-land interaction

-unique,rare, superlative or beautiful natural phenomenon

-rare or endangered species

-willingness to take care of the place

natural heritage areas of the usa
Everglades

Grand Canyon

Great Smoky Mountain

Olympic

Redwood

Yellowstone

Mammoth Cave

Yosemite

Hawaii Volcanoes

Kluane-Wrangel/St Elias (joint with Canada)

Natural Heritage Areas of the USA
slide30
Convention on Wetlands of international Importance, Especially as Waterfowl HabitatRamsar (Iran), 1971
  • UNESCO Biosphere Reserves--program, not a convention
    • protection of areas that have global standing in research, monitoring, training, demonstration and conservation
    • 48 areas in USA
    • Some are what you would expect
      • Big Bend, Glacier, Olympic, Yellowstone
    • Others are obscure unless you live next to them
      • Beaver Creek Experimental Watershed
new topic

New Topic

How is the USA involved in

the worlds national parks?

types of foreign aid
Types of Foreign Aid
  • Military--generally given unilaterally (one nation directly to another)
  • Foreign Domestic Assistance (unilateral)
    • One country directly to another
    • Buys loyalty
  • Multilateral Domestic Assistance
    • Donors give to central organization (like the World Bank,IMF)
    • Funds distributed on basis of “need” and “priority”
major donors
Major Donors
  • USA
    • Has preferred unilateral foreign domestic assistance
    • Total giving large
    • Per capata giving is small
    • Not particularly generous
    • Major lobby for foreign aid are large, often conservative companies (since foreign aid is a subsidy)
    • Projects subject, in theory, to all American law
      • Biodiversity Act -requires replacement of lost land
      • EPA
      • OSHA
      • Various restrictions on family planning and abortion
    • Major recipients--Israel and Egypt
    • Has historically avoided conservation and park related projects
other major donors
Other Major Donors
  • Western Europe--tends to support former colonies
  • Sweden--largest per capata donor, forestry
  • Norway--forestry
  • Canada--French/English bilingual countries
  • Australia--arid lands
  • New Zealand--mountain areas
  • Japan--largest total donor, strong commercial development
  • Saudi Arabia--Moslem, you get a mosque with it
  • China--heavy construction, great to work with
  • Israel--pass through from US
  • Taiwan--fisheries
  • Russia and Eastern Europe out of business
  • These are hard days for dependent countries
us contracts and cooperation
US--Contracts and Cooperation
  • International Office of the NPS
    • Runs annual training program through Michigan State University
  • Other international offices--USFS, FWS, BLM
  • US Peace Corps
    • much activity has been accidental or incidental
    • major work has been done in Colombia, Malawi, Costa Rica, Fiji, Morocco, Kenya, Czech Republic
    • would be a good thesis topic, if you are ever looking for one
    • if you want a career in international conservation:

The Peace Corps is an absolute must

    • Note: other countries have peace corps like organizations
    • BOV is the British equivalent