The Nature of Science. From SCIENCE FOR A LL A MERICANS. The world is understandable. Science presumes that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful systematic study.
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Scientists may disagree about the value of a particular piece of evidence, or about the appropriateness of particular assumptions that are made and therefore disagree about what conclusions are justified.
Scientists tend to agree about the principles of logical reasoning that connect evidence and assumptions with conclusions.
The process of formulating and testing hypotheses is one of the core activities of scientists.
New ideas that do not mesh with well with mainstream ideas may encounter vigorous criticism, and scientists investigating such ideas may have difficulty obtaining support for their research. (Louis DeBrogli: wave-particle duality)
Theories are judged by their results: When …a new or improved version that explains more phenomena or answers more important questions that the previous version, the new one eventually takes its place.
Research with human beings may only be conducted with…informed consent of the subjects. (Informed consent entails full disclosure of the risks and benefits of the research and the right to refuse to participate.)
The ethics of science also relates to the possible harmful effects of applying the results of research. (The long-term effects of science may be unpredictable, but some idea of what applications are expected can be ascertained by knowing who is interested in funding it.)