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RESPIRATORY PROTECTION. 29 CFR 1910.134. RESPIRATOR PROGRAM. Requires a written program with work-specific procedures when respirators are needed Must keep written program updated as needed A program administrator is required

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RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

29 CFR 1910.134


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RESPIRATOR PROGRAM

  • Requires a written program with work-specific procedures when respirators are needed

  • Must keep written program updated as needed

  • A program administrator is required

  • Employer must provide respirators, training, and medical evaluations at no cost to employees


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Proper selection

Medical evaluation

Proper use

Care/maintenance

Fit testing

Breathing air quality

Training

Program evaluation

PROGRAM ELEMENTS


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WHEN RESPIRATORS ARE USED BUT NOT REQUIRED

  • If respirators will not create hazard and if requested, employer may furnish respirators for “comfort” only use

  • If approved, employees may wear their own respirators for comfort only, but must follow program requirements

  • Voluntary use of filtering masks has reduced program requirements


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PERMISSIBLE PRACTICES

  • Engineering controls (enclosures, confinement of operations, ventilation, use of less toxic materials) are primary means to control hazards

  • When effective engineering controls are not available, respirators will be used

  • Respirators will be applicable to and suitable for the purpose intended

  • Employer will be responsible for program


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SELECTION

  • Based on the respiratory hazards to which the worker is exposed, workplace factors, and user factors that affect respirator performance and reliability

  • Respirators will be selected from a sufficient number of models and sizes to ensure correct fit and comfort


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TRAINING

  • Employers (managers and supervisors) must provide appropriate and effective training to employees who are required to use respirators


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TRAINING

  • Employees must be trained and demonstrate skill or knowledge of at least:

    • Why use is necessary

    • How improper use and care can compromise respirator effectiveness

    • Limitations and capabilities

    • How to put on, remove, use, and inspect

    • How to maintain and store

    • General requirements of the standard


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TRAINING

  • Training must be provided prior to use

  • Retraining is required at least annually, and whenever:

    • Prior training becomes obsolete

    • Employee’s skill or knowledge is deemed inadequate

    • Any other situation arises in which retraining appears necessary


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EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE

  • Exposure to a concentration of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection


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RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

  • That portion of a respirator that forms the protective barrier between the user’s respiratory tract and contaminated air

  • May be a facepiece, helmet, or hood

  • May be tight fitting or loose fitting


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HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES

  • Oxygen deficient or rich

  • Toxic

  • Environmental pollution

  • Combination

  • Flammable

  • Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)


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OXYGEN DEFICIENT

  • An atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5% (normal is 20.9%)

  • Spaces where oxygen may be depleted (confined spaces, boilers, tanks)

  • Space where decomposition of organic material (sewers, silos, basements)


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CONTAMINATED

  • Particles

  • Gases

  • Fumes

  • Vapors

  • Mists


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TWO RESPIRATOR TYPES

  • Air purifying - Removes contaminates before reaching breathing zone

  • Atmosphere supplying - Provides fresh air from an external source


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AIR PURIFYING

  • Particulates

  • Vapor and gas

  • Combination

  • Replaceable cartridge(s) or canister(s)


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AIR PURIFYING LIMITATIONS

  • Does not supply oxygen

  • Contaminant must be known and cannot exceed use limitations

  • Non-IDLH use only

    • Oxygen-deficient is IDLH

    • Unknown airborne concentrations must be considered to be IDLH


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ATMOSPHERE SUPPLYING

  • Type 1 - Airline respirator

  • Type 2 - SCBA


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AIRLINE RESPIRATOR

  • Has a pressure demand nozzle that allows user to control air flow

  • Use grade D breathing air

  • May be used with a hood or helmet to supply continuous air

  • Hose limited to 300 feet

  • Some mobility restriction


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SCBA

  • Expensive to purchase and maintain’

  • Breathing air provided from pressurized tanks

  • Provides highest level of protection and mobility

  • Commonly used in rescue or emergency situations

  • Limited to air in tanks (30 or 60 minutes)

  • Positive pressure provides maximum protection for both oxygen deficient and IDLH

  • Standard requires fit testing of mask


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SELECTION

  • Must fit the wearer and be comfortable

  • Must be the type which best abates the hazards

  • Atmosphere hazard evaluation determines selection


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WRITTEN PLAN

  • The program must be be assigned to a trained and competent person

  • Describes in detail the hazard evaluation

  • Contains procedures for selection, use, and maintenance


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WRITTEN PLAN

  • Contains results of analysis of atmospheric contaminants

    • Physical and chemical properties

    • Adverse health effects

    • Warning properties

    • Permissible exposure limits (PELS)

    • Other accepted exposure limits


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WRITTEN PLAN

  • Additional plan criteria

    • Results of workplace atmospheric testing

    • Work requiring respirator use

    • Time expected to complete the task

    • Written plan to be made available to all involved employees


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FIT TESTING

  • Before an employee uses any respirator with a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the employee must be fit tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used

  • Must be administered using an OSHA accepted protocol


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FIT TESTING

  • Respirators rely on face-to-mask seal

  • Fit testing determines which device will best fit and seal

  • Stubble, beard, hairlines, glasses, and goggles will negatively affect fit

  • Corrective lenses may be mounted inside the facepiece


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FIT TEST PROCEDURES

  • Fit testing should be conducted annually, if facial features change or if a different respirator is used

  • Users of tight fitting respirators must perform a user seal check each time the respirator is used


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TYPES OF FIT TESTING

  • Qualitative (QLFT) – A challenge agent, vapor, or aerosol released

  • Fit is inadequate if a presence of the agent is detected (irritation, taste, or odor)

  • Quantitative (QNFT) - Measures actual level of agent both inside and outside the respirator


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FIT FACTOR

  • A quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual

  • Ratio of:

    • Concentration of a substance in ambient air

    • Concentration of a substance inside the respirator


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FIT TESTING

  • QLFT may only be used to fit test negative pressure air purifying respirators that achieve a fit factor of 100 or less

  • A fit factor of at least 100 for tight- fitting half facepieces, or 500 for tight-fitting full facepieces from a QNFT is acceptable


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HEPA FILTERS

  • High efficiency particulate air

  • Removes 99.97% of particles that are 0.3 micrometers in diameter

    • N, R, or P 100


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FILTERS/CARTRIDGES

  • A component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from inspired air

  • Also called an air purifying cartridge


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CANISTER OR CARTRIDGE

  • A container with a filter, sorbent (catalyst), or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container


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SERVICE LIFE

  • The period of time that a respirator, filter, sorbent, or other respiratory equipment provides adequate protection to the wearer


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END OF SERVICE LIFE INDICATOR (ESLI)

  • A system that warns the user of the approach of the end of adequate respiratory protection; e.g., sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective


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NEGATIVE PRESSURERESPIRATOR

  • A respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator


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FILTERING FACEPIECE

  • A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece, or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium

  • “Dust mask”

  • N, R, or P 95


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POSITIVE PRESSURERESPIRATOR

  • A respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator


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POWERED AIR-PURIFYINGRESPIRATOR (PAPR)

  • An air purifying respirator that uses a blower/motor to force ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering


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ATMOSPHERE-SUPPLYINGRESPIRATOR

  • A respirator that supplies the user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere

  • Includes supplied-air respirators and self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)


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ATMOSPHERE-SUPPLYINGRESPIRATORS

  • Continuous flow: Provides a continuous flow of breathing air to the respiratory inlet covering

  • Pressure demand: Admits air to the facepiece when the positive pressure inside the facepiece is reduced by inhalation


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SUPPLIED AIR RESPIRATOR

  • An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not carried by the user

  • Also called airline respirator


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SCBA

  • An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air is designed to be carried by the user


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ESCAPE ONLY RESPIRATOR

  • A respirator designed and intended to be used only for emergency exit


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POSITIVE PRESSURE FIT CHECK

  • Block off exhalation valve with palm

  • Blow outward gently

  • A good fit results in the pressure holding and no leaks found


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NEGATIVE PRESSURE FIT CHECK

  • Place palms over the inhalation inlets, or squeeze the breathing tube

  • Inhale gently - facepiece should collapse slightly

  • Hold breath about ten seconds

  • Good test indicated by pressure holding and no leaks found


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CONTINUING EFFECTIVENESS

  • Employees may leave the respirator use area:

    • To wash face or facepiece

    • If a “breakthrough” is detected

    • There is a change in breathing resistance

    • There is leakage of the facepiece

    • To replace respirator, filter, cartridge, or canister


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MAINTENANCE

  • Inspection

  • Decontamination

  • Storage


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INSPECTION

  • Holes in the filters

  • Loss of elasticity or tears in headstraps and hoses

  • Broken or loose connectors and hoses

  • Cracked or scratched facepieces

  • Detergent residue

  • Dirt in valves

  • General cleanliness


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CLEANING/DISINFECTING

  • Follow manufacturers directions

  • If worn by only one person, clean and disinfect periodically

  • If possible to be worn by more than one person, clean and disinfect after each use


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STORAGE

  • Must be protected from dust, sunlight, heat, cold, moisture, and chemicals

  • Facepiece should be stored in an individual plastic bag

  • Store masks with valves and breathing tubes in a natural, undistorted position


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IDLH ATMOSPHERES

  • Only NIOSH certified for IDLH atmospheres may be used

  • Full facepiece pressure demand SCBA, certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of 30 minutes

  • Combination full facepiece pressure demand SAR with auxiliary self-contained air supply


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NON IDLH ATMOSPHERES

  • An atmosphere-supplying respirator

  • An air-purifying respirator, provided that:

    • Has ESLI certified by NIOSH; or

    • A dependable canister change schedule

      • Basis and reliance must be in writing


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PARTICULATES

  • Atmosphere-supplying respirator

  • Air-purifying respirator equipped with appropriate filters

    • Air-purifying respirator equipped with any filter certified by NIOSH for the particulate


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IDLH ATMOSPHERES

  • Two employees located outside

  • Visual, voice, or signal communication must be maintained

  • Outside employees must be trained in rescue

  • Manager or supervisor must be notified before any rescue attempt


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IDLH ATMOSPHERES

  • Rescuers must be provided necessary assistance and equipment:

    • A pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBA or SAR with auxiliary SCBA

    • Appropriate retrieval equipment

    • Equipment means for rescue where retrieval equipment is not required


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BREATHING AIR QUALITY

  • Compressed breathing air must meet at least the requirements for grade D breathing air

  • Systems supplying breathing air must be equipped with appropriate in-line air purifying sorbent beds and filters, and maintained per manufacturer’s instructions


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BREATHING AIR QUALITY

  • Oxygen content of 19.5% - 23.5%

  • No more than 5 milligrams of hydrocarbon (condensed) content per cubic meter (mg/m3) of air

  • Carbon monoxide content no more than 10 parts per million (ppm)

  • Carbon dioxide content no more than 1,000 ppm

  • Lack of noticeable odor


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FILTERS (NIOSH)

  • Three levels of filter efficiency (95%, 99%, and 99.97%)

  • Three levels of filter resistance to efficiency degradation (N, R, and P)

  • Total of nine classes of filters


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FILTER SELECTION

  • Selection of N, R, or P depends on whether there are oil particles present

  • N for Not resistant to oil

  • R for Resistant to oil

  • P for oil Proof


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FILTER SELECTION

  • No oil particles present

    • Use any series (N, R, or P)

  • Oil particles present

    • Use only R or P series

  • Oil particles present and filter is to be used more than one shift

    • Use only P series


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PHYSICIAN OR LICENSED HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONAL (PLHCP)

  • Individuals whose legally permitted scope of practice (license, registration, or certification) allow them to independently provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the health care services required by paragraph (e), medical evaluation


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MEDICAL EVALUATION

  • Provide medical evaluation before fit testing and respirator use

  • PLHCP may use questionnaire (sections 1 and 2, part A of appendix C) or examination

  • Follow-up is required for any positive response to questions 1-8 in section 2, part A of appendix C, or demonstrates the need during examination


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MEDICAL EVALUATIONS

  • Annual review is not automatically required

  • Must provide evaluations if:

    • Employee reports problem using device

    • PLHCP, supervisor, or program administrator thinks there should be

    • Observations during fit-testing indicates there should be

    • Changes occur in the workplace or the employee


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RECORDKEEPING

  • Training and medical records must be maintained and made available

  • Fit test records must be maintained until the next test is administered

  • A written copy of the current program must be maintained

  • All written materials must be available to affected employees, and state and federal agents