HIV/AIDS & Agricultural and Rural Development - some comments - - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. HIV/AIDS & Agricultural and Rural Development- some comments - Presentation at the VI Annual Donor Meeting, 9 –11 May, 2006, IFAD (WCAD), Rome by Klaus Pilgram GTZ, Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food Division

  2. Mainstreaming of Mitigation of HIV/AIDS-Impacts means a sector determining • how the spread of HIV is caused or contributed to by the resp. sector; • how the epidemic is likely to affect sector goals, objectives and programs; • where the sector has a comparative advantage to respond – to limit the spread of HIV and to mitigate the impact of the epidemic.

  3. 1. Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agriculture/RD 1.1. Impact on the Human and Financial Resources of the Sector: • Increased absenteeism • Increased health care and benefit expenses for affected staff and their dependents • Increased mortality rates • Increase burial and funeral costs • Low morale among staff members • Increased labour turnover, loss of skilled workers and expertise • Increase in training, recruitment, and retraining costs • Disruption of service delivery, decrease of the extension workers/farmers ratio and extension coverage • Overall decline in productivity

  4. 1.2. Impact on the Sector’s “Target Population” The long-term impact of HIV/AIDS is most severe on subsistence farmersand their households through: • Decline in household income due to decrease in labour productivity • Increase in medical and funeral expenses • Erosion of household assets base (through depletion of savings & forced disposal of productive household assets e.g. land, livestock) • Increase in dependency ratio • Stretching of traditional social safety mechanisms • Loss of social capital, i.e. socio-cultural norms,like kinship duties and responsibilities • Decline in smallholder crop and livestock production & and loss in variety of crops grown • Loss of knowledge of indigenous and other farming and marketing skills and practices, and their inter-generational transfer

  5. HIV/AIDS infected persons need up to 50% more protein and up to 15 % more energy. If nutritional status is good (micronutrients + Vitamine A) > Chance of infection might be reduced > Death might be delayed • Resistance to opportunistic diseases is improved.

  6. Impact on commercial farming: • Loss of man-hours due to illness and absenteeism • Increase in mortality rates • Reduction of acreage under cultivation • Loss of specialised skills and practices • Increase in recruitment and retraining costs • Overall decline in productivity

  7. 1.3. RD/Agriculture programmes can exacerbate the spread of HIV: • By improving road and market infrastructure in rural areas, which intensifies social and economic interactions between communities • By stimulating migration (e.g. seasonal labour on plantations, marketing of produce,...) • By promoting farming methods which increase gender imbalances • By contributing to the monetarisation of rural economy, which may increase the opportunities for commercial sex • By introducing poverty alleviation schemes which do not favour women • By encouraging cultural practices which dis-empower women • By establishing rural cottage and agro-processing industries which enhance the disposable income of men

  8. In countries with prevalence rates of 10% among adults, the growth of national income is reduced by up to one third!

  9. But... Agricultural & Rural Development can also make a substantial contribution to the Response to HIV/AIDS !....

  10. 2. Rationale for Mainstreaming • The magnitude of the epidemic. • The severity and scope of its impact, touching all sectors of societies. • The inadequacy of solely health sector-based responses have clearly demonstrated the need for a cross-sectoral mobilisation and collaboration against the pandemic. What does one understand by mainstreaming?

  11. Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS is the process by which an institution (organization, program, project) systematically and adequately incorporates HIV/AIDS-related issues into its mandate and core activities. UNAIDS: mainstreaming is a process that enables development actors to address the causes and effects of HIV and AIDS as they relate to their mandate in an effective and sustained manner, both through their usual work and through their workplace, in order to contribute to the response in the areas of prevention, care, treatment, support, vulnerability reduction and impact alleviation

  12. 3. Levels of Mainstreaming: • Global/regional policies and agencies: • HIPC Initiative, UNGASS, NEPAD,... • FAO, GTZ, IFAD,... • National policies and institutions: • Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, National Development Plan,... • Multi-sectoral coordinating bodies (National AIDS Commissions) • Sectoral level: • Public, non-for profit, and business sectors • Sectoral plans (e.g. Health, Education, Agriculture,…) • Sub-national level: • Regional/District development plans, ... • CSOs, projects,...

  13. UNAIDS Country Reports 2004 from 73 Countries AIDS strategies integrated into Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers or other national development plans (PRSP/NDP (48)) 66% Mainstreaming AIDS into non-health sectors : Has not started…………………………………………………………………… 3% Has started but there are no results yet............................. 40% Has been integrated into sectoral plans but not implemented yet......................................... 26% Has been integrated into sectoral plans and is being implemented ….. 27% Mainstreaming AIDS into local development plans: Has not started………………………………………………………. 10% Has started but there are no results yet… …………… 51% Has been integrated into plans but not implemented yet……………………………………………………………. ………..23% Has been integrated into plans and is being implemented……………………………………………………….. 12%

  14. 4. Way Forward: • Seize the momentum to systematize mainstreaming processes: Making the money work = Scaling up the Response = Making multi-sectorality work = Making development work • Move beyond discourse & semantics by (i) focusing on a few genericprinciples (ii)defining actual outcomes within each specific & evolving context (iii) demonstrating results • Need to strengthen the supply-side: adequate and coordinated technical support

  15. 5.1. Some interventions in the agricultural sector: • Training on HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS related communication skills for dept‘s employees (particularly extension and environmental officers) • Review transfer policy for extension officers • Analysis of existing farm structures and production systems in the different Agro-Ecological-Zones with regard to Household income, farm labour requirements, etc. • Develop scenarios for different farm size groups, production systems and nutrition (food security) • Include research regarding less labour intensive production in existing programmes (crop rotation, livestock systems, perennial cropping systems, etc.) • Link the promotion of food gardens (healthy nutrition) and HIV/AIDS awareness • Support HBC organisations and communities (affected households) in the establishment of food gardens

  16. 5.2 Some interventions in relation to NRM: • The acquistion of household energy is often very labour- / time-intensive and provides a considerable challenge to many households. Energy-saving stoves and / or small woodlots can considerably reduce the labour requirement for these daily tasks • Agro-forestry systems can provide an alternative source of income (fruits, fuelwood, fodder) and do not require high labour inputs • Participatory management of protected area can offer income opportunities through part-time jobs and / or handicraft production (home-based activties)

  17. 5.3. Sector, district and local responses: • Identify priority sectors: health, education, services for women and youth, labour, justice, agriculture, rural development, transport, uniformed services, mining, infrastructure,… • Identify thematic entry points - such as staff absenteeism, mobile populations, food security, gender and young people, school drop-outs, … • Identify entry points in existing planning processes • Focal persons should be backed up by hierarchy and supported by adequate technical support and budgets • Incremental approach: strategies, work plans and budgets can be modest at first and be expanded at every planning cycle

  18. 6. Monitoring and Evaluation • Particularly important because of the essential learning and incremental nature of mainstreaming at all levels • Indicators will cover process as well as outcome (AIDS-specific and sector-specific) indicators • To be integrated gradually into routine planning and M&E systems (while improving them…)

  19. Possible Indicators: • Extension officers provide appropriate advice and address the issue of HIV/AIDS in a culturally acceptable manner • Home gardens provide the basis for an improved diet and medicinal plants to strengthen the immune system • Home-Based-Care and other SH-organisations provide adequate support to infected / affected households and orphans

  20. 7. What ‘Mainstreaming’ is NOT: • It is NOT simply providing support for a Health Ministry’s programme. • It is NOT trying to take over specialist health-related functions. • It is NOT changing core functions and responsi-bilities (instead it is viewing them from a different perspective). • It is NOT business as usual….

  21. Remember : HIV/AIDS Is Everybody’s Business

  22. Merci beaucoup ! • Thank you very much !