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Personal Security

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  1. Personal Security Security Tips for Home Internet Users

  2. Securing your home computer • Accessing the Internet from home • Convenient • Abundance of information • Exposes your computer • Can be costly or damaging

  3. Overview • Internet access • Why Should I be concerned with Security • What are the most common vulnerabilities • What security tools are available • Where can I find more information

  4. Internet • Complex system of attached networks • Designed to distribute data geographically at high speeds in a short period of time • Data is distributed in a variety of formats • Examples: PDF, JPEG, MOV, MP3, Text • Information is stored or viewed locally on your computer

  5. Broadband • High speed access to the home user • Types • DSL • Cable Modem

  6. DSL • Digital Subscriber Line • Typically ADSL • Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line • Offers dedicated bandwidth • Speed • 384 kbps downstream • 128 kbps upstream • Up to 1.5 Mbps down 800 kbps up • Varies depending on service level and distance from CO (Central Office) • Maximum distance varies 14000 – 17500 ft

  7. DSL Configuration • DSL Modem • DSL Splitter and Filters • DSLAM • Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer • ISP • Internet Service Provider

  8. Cable Modem • Shared bandwidth • Speed per channel • 27 Mbps shared download • 10 Mbps Upload • Connects to CMTS (Cable Modem Transmission System) at cable company • Provides packet filtering, and traffic shaping

  9. What about security? • Why should I be concerned? • What are the vulnerabilities? • What can I do to protect myself? • How do I recover from an attack?

  10. Why should I be Concerned • You lose crucial data • You spend time and money on recovery • You feel violated, helpless and foolish • You risk propagating the attack to your peers and others • Your peers and others know how foolish you are

  11. Vulnerabilities • Viruses • Hacks • Data Capturing • Lack of contingency planning

  12. Virus • 60,000 Variations in circulation • Types of Viruses • Antivirus Software • Best Practices

  13. Types of Viruses • Viruses are Segments of code or complete programs that can damage your system or degrade system performance. • Trojan Horse • Worm • Hoax

  14. Trojan Horses • A program disguised as having a desired purpose while subversively performing an unwanted action on your system. • Often open backdoor access to your system • Notorious Trojan Horses • Simpson's • Backdoor • Sub7 • BackOrafice • NetBus

  15. Worm • Self Propagating independent program that adversely affects your computer performance or damages your computer • Hall of fame • Melissa • Nimda • LoveLetter • Anna Kournikova • CodeRed • SirCam

  16. Hoax • An unsubstantiated virus alert intended to cause panic • Typically warning of the most damaging or dangerous virus • Examples • BudweiserFrogs • A virtual card for you • !0000 – Stop mass mailings • Wobbler • Win a holiday

  17. Best Practice: Virus prevention • Always verify your antivirus software is running and Update your antivirus software

  18. Best Practice: Virus prevention 2 • When receiving email do not open attachments unless you are expecting them • Take virus alerts seriously • Sources of alerts • Institutional Notification • News Media alerts • Word of mouth

  19. Virus recovery • Use antivirus software and tools to clean system • http://www.mcafee.com • http://www.symantec.com • Find manual steps for virus removal • Reinstall your system from scratch

  20. Hacks • Hacking • What is hacking • How does hacking happen • Types of attacks • Prevention methods

  21. Hacking • Gaining unauthorized access to computer systems for malicious purposes

  22. How Hacking Happens • System information is collected • Footprinting • Scanning • Probing • Enumeration • Software vulnerabilities are exploited • System passwords are guessed or not employed

  23. Types of Attacks • Interference • Interception • Impersonation

  24. Interference • Attacks that render objects or services unusable • Denial of service • Distributed Denial of service • System alteration

  25. Interception • Captures Data through monitoring or redirection • Monitoring • Wire taps • Network Monitoring • Redirection • Alteration of DNS servers • Man in the middle

  26. Impersonation • When the attacker assumes the identity of a trusted source • Spoof attacks • Using the IP source address of a trusted source computer • Password attacks • Password enumeration

  27. Prevention Methods • Know your system • Tools to help protect your system • Watch for and apply security patches • Contingency planning

  28. Know your system • Inventory your system • Baseline system and network performance • Identify vulnerabilities

  29. Inventory your system • Software Inventory • Running Software • File and printer sharing • Startup Software • Installed Software • Software Keys • Software Licensing • Hardware • Installed components • Vendor specific device drivers

  30. Inventory Tools • Microsoft • System Information 98 • Manage Computer System summary • Windows NT Diagnostics

  31. Inventory Tools 2 • Belarc Advisor

  32. System Baseline • Task manager • Memory Utilization • Process Utilization • Performance monitor • Log low use system state • Log high use system state

  33. Network Baseline • Check Internet Bandwidth speed • McAfee Speedometer • http://promos.mcafee.com/speedometer/test_0150.asp • Ftp Large Files • Hash • Download Statistics

  34. Network Baseline 2 • Use traceroute • Check TTL stats • Use performance monitor to check utilization • Network Utilization

  35. Identify Vulnerablilities • Filesharing • Opens access to your files remotely • Should be turned off if not used • Protected with security device and used with complex passwords • Web Browsing • Personal information is accessible via cookie files • ActiveX components can launch Visual Basic Application components included in Microsoft Office • Disable ActiveX components unless necessary

  36. Security Boundries • Personal Computer • Local Network Security • Internet Security

  37. Internet Protocol (IP) • Address your computer on the network and where your computer can be reached • 32 Bit numeric device address. • Dotted Decimal Notation • Ex: 192.168.99.32 • Consists of network and host address. • Determined by subnet mask • 255.255.255.0 • Network 192.168.99.0 • Host 0.0.0.32

  38. Network Security • Dynamic Addressing • IP address changes over scheduled time • Private Addressing • Reserved address range by IANA • 10.0.0.0 • 192.168.0.0 • 172.16.0.0 • Encryption

  39. Encryption • Method of repackaging data into cyphertext in order to keep observers from viewing data and preserve data integrity • SSL – Secure Sockets Layer • Encrypts Communication between web browsers and web servers over the internet • Uses Public and private key exchange • VPN – Virtual Private Networking • Secure Tunnel • Key Encryption • Symmetric • Asymmetric • Encryption Algorithms • SHA – Secure Hashing Algorithm • DES – Data Encryption Standard

  40. What your ISP does for you • Private addressing • Dynamic addressing • Email virus scanning • Abuse@isp.com

  41. Security Tools • Routers • Proxy Servers • Firewalls • Application • Circuit Switching • Scanners

  42. Routers • ACL Filter packets • Deny or Allow • Destination or Source • Separate Networks • Gateway • Private Network

  43. Proxy Server • Resides between web sites and web browser • Takes Request from client • Issues request to web server • Caches web content locally • Improves network performance

  44. Firewalls • Separates untrusted external network with trusted internal network. • Types of Firewalling • Personal Firewall • Network Firewall

  45. Types of Firewalling • ACL – Access Control Lists • Filters Packets • Application Firewalling • Verifies command legitimacy • Can be performance intensive • Proxying • Circuit Switching • Allows data sessions by request

  46. Personal Firewall • Installed on local Computer • Rules Based • Alerts to system intrusion • Accounting Logs events for network forensics • Risky can affect stability of your computer • Personal firewalls replace operating system kernel components and can conflict with other applications • Vendors • Sygate Personal Firewall – http://www.sygate.com • Black Ice Defender – http://www.networkice.com • McAfee Personal Firewall – http://www.mcafee.com • Norton Personal Firewall – http://www.symantec.com • Zone Alarm – http://www.zonelabs.com

  47. Network Firewalls • DSL Cable Routers • Filter Packets • Separates Network • Uses Private Addressing • Vendors • Linksys DSL/Cable Router • http://www.linksys.com • Dlink Home Gateway Internet Sharing and Firewall • http://www.dlink.com • Proxim – Netline Gateway • http://www.proxim.com • SMC Barricade • http://www.smc.com

  48. Port Scanners • Scans IP Port numbers for available services • Gibson Research Center • http://www.grc.com

  49. Contingency • Backup your data • Often • Use Rotation schedule • Store software, license and key information in a safe convenient place. • Software includes device drivers, application software, and operating system

  50. Who can I turn to? • Abuse@yourisp.com • System Administration Networking Security • http://www.sans.org • Carnegie Mellon - Computer Emergency Response Center • http://www.cert.org • FBI – Internet Fraud Complaint Center • http://www.fbi.gov/interagency/ifcc/filingcomplaint.htm