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Human Evolution. Chapter 32-Mader. Overview. Evolution of Primates Evolution of Hominids Focus on Homo Human Variation Humans as a selective agent. Early Primates. Prosimians (~58mya) Monkeys (35mya) Apes (23mya) Hominids (~6mya). First Arboreal Mammals.

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human evolution

Human Evolution

Chapter 32-Mader

overview
Overview
  • Evolution of Primates
  • Evolution of Hominids
  • Focus on Homo
  • Human Variation
  • Humans as a selective agent
early primates
Early Primates
  • Prosimians (~58mya)
  • Monkeys (35mya)
  • Apes (23mya)
  • Hominids (~6mya)
first arboreal mammals
First Arboreal Mammals
  • The first arboreal mammals probably resembled shrews:
    • long snouts.
    • Good sense of smell.
    • Probably nocturnal.
    • Very active.
    • CLAWS
eosimias
Eosimias
  • The First Primate?
  • Comparison with tree shrew
slide7

Prosimians

Lemurs

Tarsiers

Pottos

Loris

primate characteristics
Primate Characteristics
  • What is the major selective pressure associated with life in the trees?
  • How are primates adapted to this life?
mobile limbs
Mobile Limbs
  • Most primates have flat nails as well as sensitive pads on the undersides of fingers and toes.
    • Many also have both an opposable big toe and thumb.
  • Mobile limbs and clawless opposable digits allow primates to freely grasp and release tree limbs.
other important features
Other important features
  • Upright posture.
  • Small litter size.
  • Expanded forebrain, larger brain capacity.

Advantages?

two main groups of primates
Two main groups of primates:
  • 1. Prosimians – lemurs, lorises, pottos & tarsiers
  • 2. Anthropoids – monkeys, apes and man
slide20

Prosimians

Lemurs

Tarsiers

Pottos

Loris

slide21

ANTHROPOIDS

  • 2. Anthropoids = monkeys + apes + man
  • Monkeys:
    • Old world monkeys
    • New world monkeys

Old World Monkey:

Long snout

Close nostrils

Non-prehensile tail

New World Monkey:

Flat face

Wide nostrils

Prehensile tail

taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Anthropoids= Hominoids + monkeys
  • Hominoids= Asian and African Apes + Hominids
  • Hominids= Humans
proconsul
Proconsul

A skull of Proconsul africanus from the Kenya National Museum.

selective pressures
Selective pressures

East Africa Rift Valley

sahelanthropus tchadensis
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
  • 6 to 7 million years ago
  • Flat face like Homo
  • Cranial capacity about the same as a chimp
  • Walked upright
hominids
Hominids
  • Bipedal primates.
to be human
To be Human
  • standard primate characteristics
  • upright, bipedal posture
  • much expanded brain
  • well defined sexual dimorphism
  • hidden estrus
  • altered female sexual response
  • extended childhood
  • language
  • society
  • culture
map of australopithecine finds
Map of Australopithecine Finds

Map of Australopithecus sites in Africa, with a focus on the East African rift valley and limestone caves of South Africa.

slide33

“Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis

An Example of Mosaic Evolution

slide35

A. boisei

A. afarensis

A. africanus

A. robustus

australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus africanus
  • 2.8 million years ago
  • Cranial capacity 460 cc
homo habilis
Homo habilis

Brain~600cc

“Handy Man”

Olduwan tools

Speech?

Artist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago.

homo erectus
Homo erectus
  • “Upright Man”
  • Larger brain than H. habilis
  • Migrated
  • Acheulean tools
  • More advanced culture?
neanderthals
Neanderthals
  • Neanderthal (H. neanderthalensis) skeletons were first discovered in Germany’s Neander Valley.
    • Skeletons date back 200,000 years.
what happened to neandertals
What happened to Neandertals?
  • Coexisted w/H. sapiens for up to 60,000 years.
  • Interbred?
  • Killed off?
  • Outcompeted?
slide55

Nature

Oct 28, 2004

homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
  • Archaic – 100,000 to 35,000 years BP
    • Sometimes called Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
  • Modern – 35,000 years BP to present
    • Anatomically modern
    • Sometimes called Homo sapiens sapiens
cro magnons
Cro-Magnons
  • Oldest fossils to be designated H. sapiens.
  • Modern humans who entered Asia and Europe from Africa 100,000 years ago.
    • Aurignacian tools.
    • Accomplished hunters.
    • Language.
cro magnon man
Cro-Magnon Man
  • Cro-Magnon humans
    • 1,600 cc cranial capacity
    • Not a different species, just old Homo sapiens from Europe

Artist’s reconstruction of a Cro-Magnon man

archaic h sapiens culture
Archaic H. sapiens Culture
  • Art
    • Female figurines
    • 27,000 to 22,000 years ago
    • Called “venuses,”
human variation
Human Variation

Responses to the environment:

  • Bergmann’s Rule
  • Allen’s Rule
sequence of human evolution one of several possibilities

Homo neanderthalensis

Australopithecus afarensis

Australopithecus africanus

Homo erectus

Homo habilis

Common ancestor

Modern apes

Sequence of Human EvolutionOne of several possibilities

Homo sapiens