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Human Evolution

Human Evolution

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Human Evolution

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  1. Human Evolution Chapter 32-Mader

  2. Overview • Evolution of Primates • Evolution of Hominids • Focus on Homo • Human Variation • Humans as a selective agent

  3. Early Primates • Prosimians (~58mya) • Monkeys (35mya) • Apes (23mya) • Hominids (~6mya)

  4. First Arboreal Mammals • The first arboreal mammals probably resembled shrews: • long snouts. • Good sense of smell. • Probably nocturnal. • Very active. • CLAWS

  5. First Arboreal Mammals?

  6. Eosimias • The First Primate? • Comparison with tree shrew

  7. Prosimians Lemurs Tarsiers Pottos Loris

  8. Tarsier

  9. Ring tailed lemur

  10. Indri

  11. Aye aye what do they sound like? This

  12. Slender loris

  13. Primate Characteristics • What is the major selective pressure associated with life in the trees? • How are primates adapted to this life?

  14. Binocular Color Vision

  15. Primate Hands

  16. Mobile Limbs • Most primates have flat nails as well as sensitive pads on the undersides of fingers and toes. • Many also have both an opposable big toe and thumb. • Mobile limbs and clawless opposable digits allow primates to freely grasp and release tree limbs.

  17. Other important features • Upright posture. • Small litter size. • Expanded forebrain, larger brain capacity. Advantages?

  18. Two main groups of primates: • 1. Prosimians – lemurs, lorises, pottos & tarsiers • 2. Anthropoids – monkeys, apes and man

  19. Prosimians Lemurs Tarsiers Pottos Loris

  20. ANTHROPOIDS • 2. Anthropoids = monkeys + apes + man • Monkeys: • Old world monkeys • New world monkeys Old World Monkey: Long snout Close nostrils Non-prehensile tail New World Monkey: Flat face Wide nostrils Prehensile tail

  21. Taxonomy • Anthropoids= Hominoids + monkeys • Hominoids= Asian and African Apes + Hominids • Hominids= Humans

  22. Proconsul- Ancestor to Hominoids?

  23. Proconsul A skull of Proconsul africanus from the Kenya National Museum.

  24. Selective pressures East Africa Rift Valley

  25. Skull Comparisons:

  26. Sahelanthropus tchadensis • 6 to 7 million years ago • Flat face like Homo • Cranial capacity about the same as a chimp • Walked upright

  27. Hominids • Bipedal primates.

  28. To be Human • standard primate characteristics • upright, bipedal posture • much expanded brain • well defined sexual dimorphism • hidden estrus • altered female sexual response • extended childhood • language • society • culture

  29. Homo erectus, Australopithecus,& Human

  30. Map of Australopithecine Finds Map of Australopithecus sites in Africa, with a focus on the East African rift valley and limestone caves of South Africa.

  31. “Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis An Example of Mosaic Evolution

  32. A. boisei A. afarensis A. africanus A. robustus

  33. Human Ancestors

  34. Human Evolution

  35. Australopithecus africanus • 2.8 million years ago • Cranial capacity 460 cc

  36. Genus Homo

  37. Homo habilis Brain~600cc “Handy Man” Olduwan tools Speech? Artist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago.

  38. Oldowan Tools

  39. Homo erectus • “Upright Man” • Larger brain than H. habilis • Migrated • Acheulean tools • More advanced culture?

  40. Homo erectus

  41. Homo erectus

  42. Trends in Skull Development

  43. Neanderthals • Neanderthal (H. neanderthalensis) skeletons were first discovered in Germany’s Neander Valley. • Skeletons date back 200,000 years.