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Good practices of food chain in Polish food industry facts and chalanges. Małgorzata Korzeniowska Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. Life Cycle Assessment. Definition of food chain

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Good practices of food chain

in Polish food industry

facts and chalanges

Małgorzata Korzeniowska

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences


Definition of foodchain

  • A food supply chain, logistics network, or supply networkis a coordinated system of entities, activities,information and resources involved in moving a product orservice from supplier to customer.
  • The entities of a supply chain consist of primaryproducers,seconduryproduction, manufacturers, service providers, distributors, and retail outlets. Food supplychain activities transform raw materials and componentsinto a finishedproduct.

The primary objective of food supply chain managementis to fulfill customer demands through the most efficient use of resources.


Sustainable food chain


1) air pollutioncontrol,

2) waterpollutioncontrol,

3) soilpollutioncontrol,

4) noisepollutioncontrol,

5) protectionagainstradiation.


1) providing enough food for mankind,

2) providing nutritious food (macro- and microelements),

3) providingsafefood,

4) providing stable food delivery,

5) providing food in time and place required by consumers.


1) achievement of equality point between supply and demand,

2) ensuring moderate food prices,

3) maintenance of job posts,

4) maximization of added value,

5) maximization of return on investment.


1) ensuring a good standard of life for families of farmers, processors, traders andall involved in the food chain,

2) promotion of good interpersonal relations between people involved in the foodchain,

3) promotion of good health of all food consumers,

4) promotion of prolonged lifespan of all food consumers.


Relationship betwen food quality , food health quality and food safety traits





Safety (hazard-free)


Sensory values



Quality & Safety

Assurance and Management Systems

Obligation of food safety and quality systems


(required by law)


(expected by consumers)




QACP, ISO 9000, ISO 14000


Diagram of the relationship between GMP, GHP, HACCP, QACP, QMS

(ISO-9000, ISO-14000, etc.) and TQM (Sikora & Strada)


Good Practice means activity of the quality assurance which ensures that food products and food related processes are consistent and controlled to assure quality procedures in food systems.

  • If analyse good practices we can findthree categories of good practices:
  • Directly connected with food(i.e.: GMP good manufacturing practice)
  • Indirectly connected with food issues(i.e.: GRP good research practice)
  • Needed be not existing in reality(i.e.: GKP good housekeeping practice)

Goodpracticesdirectlyconected to foodissues

  • good agricultural practice (GAP)
  • good catering practice (GCP)
  • good housekeeping practice (GKP)
  • good hygiene practice (GHP)
  • good laboratory practice (GLP)
  • good manufacturing practice (GMP)
  • good retail practice (GRP)
  • good storage practice (GSP)
  • good transport practice (GTP)


Good Agricultural Practice is selection of the methodsof land use which can best achieve the objectives ofagronomic and environmental sustainability in primary food production.

A GAP approach aims at applying available knowledge to addressingenvironmental, economic and social sustainability dimensions for on-farm production andpost-production processes, resulting in safe and quality food and non-food agriculturalproducts. Based on generic sustainability principles, it aims at supporting locally developedoptimal practices for a given production system based on a desired outcome, taking intoaccount market demands and farmers constraints and incentives to apply practices.


World agriculture in the twenty-first century is faced with three main challenges:

  • toimprove food security, rural livelihoods and income;
  • to satisfy the increasing anddiversified demands for safe food and otherproducts;
  • to conserve and protect natural resources.
  • GAP principles:
  • Soil
  • Water
  • Crop and fodderproduction
  • Cropprotection
  • Animalproduction
  • Animal health and welfare
  • Harvest and on-farm processing and storage
  • Energy and waste management
  • Humanwelfare, health and safety
  • Wildlife and landscape


Good catering practice consist ofpractical advices and assistance tomanagers of catering (food service)outlets and suppliers to caterers.

The Guidelines concentrate on theessential steps needed to ensure thatthe food served is always safe and Wholesome.



Good Hygiene Practice refer to procedures that must be undertaken and hygieneconditions that have to be fulfilled and monitored at all stages of production ortrade in order to guarantee food safety.

Good Hygiene Practice consists of practicalprocedures and processes that return the processing environment to itsoriginalcondition (disinfectionorsanitation programmes); keep building and equipmentinefficientoperation (maintenanceprogramme); control of cross-contamination during manufacture(usually related to people, surfaces, the air and thesegregation of raw and processed product).



Good Laboratory Practice consists of a qualitativesystem governing organisational processes andconditions of planning, implementing, controlling,recording and reporting. The principles which consistof GLP are intended to identify the GLP requirementsfor test facilities (laboratories) which perform studies for regulatory purposes.



Good Manufacturing Practice denotes all the actions that must be undertakenandconditions to be fulfilled in order to ensure that production of food, wrapping materialsand other materials expected for contact with food, is executed in proper way toguarantee safe end products and safe food for human consumption.

Good Manufacturing Practice consists of practicalprocedures and processes that ensure quality system,provide consistent manufacture and control ofproducts by qualitative criteria and conformityassessing criteria with intended purpose as required bythe marketing authorisation and specification of theproduct. It is part of the quality assurance whichensures that food products are consistently producedand controlled to the quality standards appropriate totheirintendeduse.


GMP principles:

  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Pestcontrol
  • Water and air quality
  • Temperaturecontrol
  • Personnel (facilities, hygienicway of working, health, education)
  • Structure and infrastructure (surroundingarea, building, materials, equipment)
  • Technicalmaintenance
  • Waste management
  • Control of rawmaterial
  • Workmethodology


Good Retail Practice consists of practical proceduresand processes that ensure the right products aredelivered to the right addressee within a satisfactorytime period and at required conditions. A tracingsystem should enable any faulty product to be foundand there should be an effective recall procedure.



Good Storage Practice consists of practical proceduresand processes that ensure appropriate handling offoods, regarding implementation and control ofproduct storage in accordance with a defined regime prior to their use.



Good Transport Practice consists of practicalprocedures and processes that ensure a qualitativesystem governing the organization, implementationand control of transport of food products from theproducer to the final user.


The Prerequisite Programme (GHP/GMP)is the first step to implementationof food safety and quality systems along the entire food chain beginning with theinitial production, feed production, animal rearing, processing, transport and endingwith the retail trade. The area covered by the GHP and GMP requirements [Turlejska 2003] comprises:

– the site, surroundings and infrastructure of the enterprise,

– enterprise facilities and their functional layout,

– machines and equipment,

– washing and disinfecting processes,

– water supplies,

– waste control,

– pest protection and appropriate control in this field,

– personnel training,

– personnel hygiene,

– keeping documentation and records in the area of GHP.


New European Union Food Hygiene Regulations require that all foodbusinesses (except primary producers) implement foodsafety management procedures based on HACCP principlesfrom 2006. The principal objective of the new general andspecific hygiene rules is to ensure a high level of consumerprotection with regard to food safety (Regulation EC, 2004).


HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point)

is a quality managementsystem for effectively and efficiently ensuring farm-to-table food safety bycontrolling microbial, chemical, and physical hazards associated with foodproduction. A prevention-based system, it takes a proactive approach byidentifying the principal hazards and the control points where contamination canbe prevented, limited, or eliminated across the whole food production processrather than trying to identify and control contamination after it has occurred.HACCP principles are being applied to an increasing range of food products.


Critical control points (CCPs) are the result of hazard analysis and, in practical conditions,they can be treated as an operation or action that the manufacturer must payspecial attention to because these points pose real hazards to the safety of food productsin the case of deviations from the established parameters. At the same time CCPs are thepoint of control for the identified hazard but is not always the point where the hazardoccurs i.e. enters the food chain. The control can be applied before the hazard occurs or after i.e. cooking.


The HACCP system is based on seven principles which, simultaneously, make upconsecutive stages of its implementation:

  • hazard analysis, in other words, identification and assessment of threats and possiblehazards of their occurrence and determination of control measures and methods of counteractingthesethreats,
  • determination of critical control points (CCP) in order to eliminate or minimisetheoccurrence of hazards,
  • establish critical limits for the critical control points identified,
  • determination and implementation of a system for the monitoring of critical controlpoints,
  • establishment of corrective actions, if a critical control point does not fulfill thenecessaryrequirements,
  • establishment of verification procedures in order to confirm if the system is effectiveand acts in accordance with the plan,
  • elaboration and maintenance of the documentation of the HACCP system concerningstages of its implementation and determination of the method of data registrationand storage as well as archiving of the system documentation.
  • The basis for the elaboration and implementation of the HACCP system is the Codex
  • Alimentarius. Other standards are also known, among others, the Danish Standard
  • or the new ISO 22000 Standard.

The application of HACCP

Stage 1. effective preparation and planning

Stage 2. the application of the 7 HACCP principles

Stage 3. the implementation of the HACCP study output

Stage 4. the ongoing of the HACCP system


HACCP awarness

and understanding of HACCP concept

Identification and training of the HACCP team

Baseline audit and gap analysis


Plan the HACCP study

(inc. the HACCP system structure)

Stage 1.

Preparation and planning


Describetheproduct and identifytheintendeduse

Construct and validateprocessflow diagram

Identifiyhazards and controlmeasures



Identify monitoring procedures

Establishcorrective action plan procedure

Validatethe HACCP plan

Stage 2.

HACCP studies and HACCP plan development


Determinemethod of implementation

Agreeactions and timetable


Set up monitoring systems

Set upfacilities and equipment


Verifyimplementationthrough audit


Stage 3.

Implementing the HACCP plan



and regular audit


Recordsreview and data analysis (verification)

Corrective and preventative action

Problem solving

HACCP plan re-validation


Stage 4.

Maintaining the HACCP plan


Standards from the ISO 9000 family include standards which implement in variousorganisations systems of quality management. They were elaborated in such a way as toallow their application in different enterprises irrespective of branches in which theyoperate. It is, therefore, unimportant if a given organisation manufactures a product orprovides services. The ISO 9000 family comprises the following standards:

– ISO 9000, which embraces the basis of the quality management systems and terminology [ISO 9000:2000],

– ISO 9001, which specifies requirements concerning the quality managementsystem;it is precisely this standard that is implemented in enterprises [ISO 9001:


– ISO 9004, which specifies guidelines for the improvement of the system alreadyimplemented in a company [ISO 9004:2000],

– ISO 19011, which contains

recommendations concerning

auditing [ISO 19011:2002].


ISO 9000 standard in accordance with the eight principles:

– customer-oriented,

– leadership (leaders establish the unity of the aim and operation of theorganisation),

– involvement of the personnel,

– process approach,

– system approach to management,

– continuous improvement,

– decision taking on the basis of facts,

– mutually beneficial cooperation with suppliers.

It also simplifies purchase and supplier qualification procedures and, atthe same time, reduces costs associated with these operations.The quality management system based on the ISO 9000 standard covers the followingareas: management of the organisation, management of resources, process of productrealisation as well as measurements, analyses and improvement.


The International Food Standard (IFS) and the British Retail Consortium (BRC)

standard are based, among others, on the GHP/GMP principles, the HACCP system andthe ISO 9001 standard. However, the above standardsinclude requirements which are not found in any of the earlier discussed norms and comprise:

– the obligation to include in the threat analysis of the hazards associated with allergies,

– monitoring of workeffectiveness,

– the need to cover facial hair with appropriate hygiene masks,

– checking of the hands’ hygiene of workers,

– the requirement to carry out application tests of products,

– documented system of management of stocks of raw materials and products, complyingwiththe FIFO principle,

– elaboration of a system which allows the company to obtain information about GMO,

– elaboration of procedures in case of unusual situations,

– the requirement to apply metal detectors,

– elaboration of the list of places in the production-storage area where glass andotherhazardousmaterialoccur,

– development of a procedure for the qualification, approval and verification of suppliers,

– total ban of smoking on the entire area of the company.

Both the IFS and BRC standard do not allow any freedom and each, even the smallestrequirement, is described precisely. The advantage of this approach is that there areno problems with the interpretation of requirements and later on with the overinterpretation of auditors.


The ISO 22000:2005 standard is a completely new standard published in September

2005 with the aim to unify principles of the quality systems used in the food industry. It is an optional standard because it goes beyondthe framework of the GHP/GMP and HACCP requirements. Its range encompasses [ISO 22000:2005]:

– The Prerequisite Programme (PRP), i.e. the GHP/GMP principlesand GAP (Good Agricultural Practice), GVP (Good Veterinarian Practice),GPP (Good Production Practice), GDP (Good Distribution Practice ), GTP (Good Trading Practice),

– the HACCP system,

– the identification system (traceability system),

– the quality management system ISO 9001:2000.

ISO 22000:2005 integrates both the quality management system

(ISO 9001:2000)and HACCP system. There are also cross

references between ISO 22000, ISO 9004 andterms and definitions

from ISO 9000.

The most effective system of food quality and safety was designed, which implementedinto existing structure of management can give profits both organisation andother interested party. Furthermore, it may be implemented independently of other managementsystems existing into enterprise.


The level of GHP, GMP and HACCP system implementation in Polish food industry after accession to the European Union


The level of HACCP system implementation in Polish food industry

Source: Morkis G., 2007, 2008


The level of HACCP system implementation in Polish food industry in 2005 and 2007

Source: Morkis G., 2007, 2008


Dynamic [%] of GHP, GMP and HACCP implementation in Polish food industry between 2004 and 2007

Source: Morkis G., 2008


Benefits from the implementation of HACCP system

in terms of improving food safety

Trafiałek i Kołozyn-Krajewska, 2007


Intangible benefits from the implementation of HACCP system

in terms of improving food safety

Trafiałek i Kołozyn-Krajewska, 2007


Tangible and economical benefits from the implementation of HACCP system

in terms of improving food safety

Trafiałek i Kołozyn-Krajewska, 2007


Mainbarriersduring HACCP implementation

  • training,
  • human resources,
  • planning,
  • knowledge and competence,
  • documentation,
  • resources,
  • management commitment

Barriers faced by firms in implementing HACCP

Implementation of HACCP impeded by internal budgetary constraints

Problems obtaining external funding

Current food safety controls considered sufficient

Lot of changes to our production processes needed before HACCP could be put in place

The things needing to be done in order to implement HACCP overwhelmed us

Other investments considered more important

Lot of changes to our food safety controls needed before HACCP could be put in place

Wide scale upgrading of the plant needed before HACCP could be put in place

Scale of operation is too small to have HACCP

Not sure whether the implementation of HACCP would meet future regulatory requirements

Uncertain about the potential benefits of implementing HACCP

HACCP difficult to implement because of internal organization of the company

Concerned that HACCP would reduce our flexibility in production

Thought it best to wait and see the experiences of other companies before implementing ourselves

Did not really see HACCP as suitable for our plant

Not sure whether the implementation of HACCP would meet our customers requirements

Considered that costs of implementing HACCP likely to get cheaper over time

Greater priority given to other issues than enhancing our food safety controls

Food safety issues not considered sufficiently important to warrant the investment

HACCP goes against all of the ways in which we have traditionally done things


Factor loadings of barriers to HACCP Implementation:

Uncertainty about potential benefits from HACCP

Perception that current food safety control are sufficient

Tendency to learn from other's experience before acting

Uncertainty about whether future regulatory requirements met by HACCP

Perception that firm's scale of operation is too small for HACCP

Perception that HACCP is not suitable for the firm

Perception that HACCP would reduce the flexibility of operations

Perception that HACCP goes against our traditional methods

Uncertainty about meeting customer requirements with HACCP

Scale and scope of changes prior to adopting HACCP

Scale and scope of changes to food safety controls

Wide scale facility upgrading required for HACCP implementation

Overwhelmed by things to be done to adopt HACCP

Greater priority given to other issues

Food safety investment being a low priority

Relative importance of other investments

Internal budgetary constraints

Difficulty in obtaining external funding


Economic difficulties during the implementation of the HACCP system before and after Poland’s accession to the EU

Trafiałek i Kołozyn-Krajewska, 2007


Difficulties with personel composition and with essential facts concerning the problem during the implementation of the HACCP system before and after Poland’s accession to the EU

Trafiałek i Kołozyn-Krajewska, 2007


What can be done more???

No let-up on the basics

In the food processing environment, constantreinforcement on the food safety basics is necessary. These basics includesuch procedures as personnel hygiene practices and trainingprograms, cleaning, sanitation and maintenance procedures, effective product recallprograms, provisions for safe water supply, and procedures for handlingproduct throughout the entire manufacturing and distribution processes.


Continuing consumer education

Once food leaves the processor, there isalso a role for consumers and others to play in maintaining basic food safetyprecautions. Improper food handling in the home and at retail foodestablishments accounts for more reported cases of foodborne illness thandoes failure at the food processing level.


Greater use of risk-based criteria and greater flexibility in directing

regulatory resources quickly and efficiently to high-risk areas

Massiverestructuring of the nation’s food regulatory agencies may not be politically oreconomically feasible, at least in the short term. However, attention can andshould be focused on strengthening regulatory agency capabilities in areaswhere greatest risks lie. In today’s world of heightened terrorist awareness,where deliberate contamination of food supplies is a very real threat,additional attention and resources will be directed at this problem. But thateffort can complement existing food safety approaches in many ways. Manyof the systems and tools that will strengthen protections against accidentalcontamination will also help protect against deliberate contamination of the food supply.


Expanded partnerships.

The public’s perception is that the government willprotect them 100 percent when it comes to eating their food. The reality isthat government has to work in partnership with industry and in partnershipwith consumers themselves in guaranteeing safer food.


More sharing of information and less duplication of effort

The advent ofinternational food safety management system standards is opening up newavenues for cooperation and sharing of data among food safety regulatoryagencies, the food industry, and the network of private-sector organizationsthat are springing up to audit the food industry to these new standards.Multiple audits and inspections of individual facilities can be reduced. Theseopportunities need to be exploited.


Greater use of economic incentives

Economic incentives aredemonstrably more effective than regulatory pressure. An example is theUSDA Agricultural Marketing Service’s use of economic incentives andperformance standards linked to statistical process control and continuousimprovement to ensure that ground beef purchased for school lunchprograms is safe and meets purchasing requirements. In the four years thatthis program has been in effect there has been a continual improvement inthe microbiological quality of the ground beef. If purveyors want to sellground beef to the school lunch program, they must have systems that areshown to be in process control. If a supplier’s process deteriorates, thatsupplier will be removed from approved status and placed on conditionalstatus. During this time the supplier must take appropriate corrective andpreventive actions to bring the process back into compliance withspecification. If the supplier fails to do so it will be placed on ineligible status.


Expanded diligence by food companies on supplier quality performance

The recent sickening of pets from toxic ingredients blended into pet foodswas more a failure of corporate supplier quality programs than a failure of the

regulatory establishment


Globally applicable tools for a global food chain

Sourcing of food andfood ingredients is now a global business, so it makes sense to tackle foodsafety issues with internationally accepted and globally applicable tools suchas the ISO 22000:2005 standard.


More effective inspection—not more inspection

State inspection resources are limited and workload is growing, sothese resources need to be targeted where they are needed most. Foodproducers and processors—domestic or foreign—that do not show evidenceof compliance with HACCP and/or ISO 22000:2005 and those dealing inhigher-risk foodstuff should be subject to closer surveillance.