Good practices of food chain in Polish food industry facts and chalanges Małgorzata Korzeniowska Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Definition of foodchain • A food supply chain, logistics network, or supply networkis a coordinated system of entities, activities,information and resources involved in moving a product orservice from supplier to customer. • The entities of a supply chain consist of primaryproducers,seconduryproduction, manufacturers, service providers, distributors, and retail outlets. Food supplychain activities transform raw materials and componentsinto a finishedproduct. The primary objective of food supply chain managementis to fulfill customer demands through the most efficient use of resources.
Sustainable food chain Environmentalobjectives: 1) air pollutioncontrol, 2) waterpollutioncontrol, 3) soilpollutioncontrol, 4) noisepollutioncontrol, 5) protectionagainstradiation. Nutritionalobjectives: 1) providing enough food for mankind, 2) providing nutritious food (macro- and microelements), 3) providingsafefood, 4) providing stable food delivery, 5) providing food in time and place required by consumers. Economicobjectives: 1) achievement of equality point between supply and demand, 2) ensuring moderate food prices, 3) maintenance of job posts, 4) maximization of added value, 5) maximization of return on investment. Socialobjectives: 1) ensuring a good standard of life for families of farmers, processors, traders andall involved in the food chain, 2) promotion of good interpersonal relations between people involved in the foodchain, 3) promotion of good health of all food consumers, 4) promotion of prolonged lifespan of all food consumers.
Relationship betwen food quality , food health quality and food safety traits Food Healthy Quality Foodquality Safety (hazard-free) Nutritionalvalues Sensory values Convenience
Quality & Safety Assurance and Management Systems Obligation of food safety and quality systems Obligatory (required by law) Voluntary (expected by consumers) Safety GMP/GHP, HACCP Quality QACP, ISO 9000, ISO 14000
Diagram of the relationship between GMP, GHP, HACCP, QACP, QMS (ISO-9000, ISO-14000, etc.) and TQM (Sikora & Strada)
Good Practice means activity of the quality assurance which ensures that food products and food related processes are consistent and controlled to assure quality procedures in food systems. • If analyse good practices we can findthree categories of good practices: • Directly connected with food(i.e.: GMP good manufacturing practice) • Indirectly connected with food issues(i.e.: GRP good research practice) • Needed be not existing in reality(i.e.: GKP good housekeeping practice)
Goodpracticesdirectlyconected to foodissues • good agricultural practice (GAP) • good catering practice (GCP) • good housekeeping practice (GKP) • good hygiene practice (GHP) • good laboratory practice (GLP) • good manufacturing practice (GMP) • good retail practice (GRP) • good storage practice (GSP) • good transport practice (GTP)
GAP Good Agricultural Practice is selection of the methodsof land use which can best achieve the objectives ofagronomic and environmental sustainability in primary food production. A GAP approach aims at applying available knowledge to addressingenvironmental, economic and social sustainability dimensions for on-farm production andpost-production processes, resulting in safe and quality food and non-food agriculturalproducts. Based on generic sustainability principles, it aims at supporting locally developedoptimal practices for a given production system based on a desired outcome, taking intoaccount market demands and farmers constraints and incentives to apply practices.
World agriculture in the twenty-first century is faced with three main challenges: • toimprove food security, rural livelihoods and income; • to satisfy the increasing anddiversified demands for safe food and otherproducts; • to conserve and protect natural resources. • GAP principles: • Soil • Water • Crop and fodderproduction • Cropprotection • Animalproduction • Animal health and welfare • Harvest and on-farm processing and storage • Energy and waste management • Humanwelfare, health and safety • Wildlife and landscape
GCP Good catering practice consist ofpractical advices and assistance tomanagers of catering (food service)outlets and suppliers to caterers. The Guidelines concentrate on theessential steps needed to ensure thatthe food served is always safe and Wholesome.
GHP Good Hygiene Practice refer to procedures that must be undertaken and hygieneconditions that have to be fulfilled and monitored at all stages of production ortrade in order to guarantee food safety. Good Hygiene Practice consists of practicalprocedures and processes that return the processing environment to itsoriginalcondition (disinfectionorsanitation programmes); keep building and equipmentinefficientoperation (maintenanceprogramme); control of cross-contamination during manufacture(usually related to people, surfaces, the air and thesegregation of raw and processed product).
GLP Good Laboratory Practice consists of a qualitativesystem governing organisational processes andconditions of planning, implementing, controlling,recording and reporting. The principles which consistof GLP are intended to identify the GLP requirementsfor test facilities (laboratories) which perform studies for regulatory purposes.
GMP Good Manufacturing Practice denotes all the actions that must be undertakenandconditions to be fulfilled in order to ensure that production of food, wrapping materialsand other materials expected for contact with food, is executed in proper way toguarantee safe end products and safe food for human consumption. Good Manufacturing Practice consists of practicalprocedures and processes that ensure quality system,provide consistent manufacture and control ofproducts by qualitative criteria and conformityassessing criteria with intended purpose as required bythe marketing authorisation and specification of theproduct. It is part of the quality assurance whichensures that food products are consistently producedand controlled to the quality standards appropriate totheirintendeduse.
GMP principles: • Cleaning and disinfection • Pestcontrol • Water and air quality • Temperaturecontrol • Personnel (facilities, hygienicway of working, health, education) • Structure and infrastructure (surroundingarea, building, materials, equipment) • Technicalmaintenance • Waste management • Control of rawmaterial • Workmethodology
GRP Good Retail Practice consists of practical proceduresand processes that ensure the right products aredelivered to the right addressee within a satisfactorytime period and at required conditions. A tracingsystem should enable any faulty product to be foundand there should be an effective recall procedure.
GSP Good Storage Practice consists of practical proceduresand processes that ensure appropriate handling offoods, regarding implementation and control ofproduct storage in accordance with a defined regime prior to their use.
GTP Good Transport Practice consists of practicalprocedures and processes that ensure a qualitativesystem governing the organization, implementationand control of transport of food products from theproducer to the final user.
Good Nutrition Practice interlinking relevantgood practices in food supply chain
Good Nutritional Practice as basis for launching Good Life Practice principles
The Prerequisite Programme (GHP/GMP)is the first step to implementationof food safety and quality systems along the entire food chain beginning with theinitial production, feed production, animal rearing, processing, transport and endingwith the retail trade. The area covered by the GHP and GMP requirements [Turlejska 2003] comprises: – the site, surroundings and infrastructure of the enterprise, – enterprise facilities and their functional layout, – machines and equipment, – washing and disinfecting processes, – water supplies, – waste control, – pest protection and appropriate control in this field, – personnel training, – personnel hygiene, – keeping documentation and records in the area of GHP.
New European Union Food Hygiene Regulations require that all foodbusinesses (except primary producers) implement foodsafety management procedures based on HACCP principlesfrom 2006. The principal objective of the new general andspecific hygiene rules is to ensure a high level of consumerprotection with regard to food safety (Regulation EC, 2004).
HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) is a quality managementsystem for effectively and efficiently ensuring farm-to-table food safety bycontrolling microbial, chemical, and physical hazards associated with foodproduction. A prevention-based system, it takes a proactive approach byidentifying the principal hazards and the control points where contamination canbe prevented, limited, or eliminated across the whole food production processrather than trying to identify and control contamination after it has occurred.HACCP principles are being applied to an increasing range of food products.
Critical control points (CCPs) are the result of hazard analysis and, in practical conditions,they can be treated as an operation or action that the manufacturer must payspecial attention to because these points pose real hazards to the safety of food productsin the case of deviations from the established parameters. At the same time CCPs are thepoint of control for the identified hazard but is not always the point where the hazardoccurs i.e. enters the food chain. The control can be applied before the hazard occurs or after i.e. cooking.
The HACCP system is based on seven principles which, simultaneously, make upconsecutive stages of its implementation: • hazard analysis, in other words, identification and assessment of threats and possiblehazards of their occurrence and determination of control measures and methods of counteractingthesethreats, • determination of critical control points (CCP) in order to eliminate or minimisetheoccurrence of hazards, • establish critical limits for the critical control points identified, • determination and implementation of a system for the monitoring of critical controlpoints, • establishment of corrective actions, if a critical control point does not fulfill thenecessaryrequirements, • establishment of verification procedures in order to confirm if the system is effectiveand acts in accordance with the plan, • elaboration and maintenance of the documentation of the HACCP system concerningstages of its implementation and determination of the method of data registrationand storage as well as archiving of the system documentation. • The basis for the elaboration and implementation of the HACCP system is the Codex • Alimentarius. Other standards are also known, among others, the Danish Standard • or the new ISO 22000 Standard.
The application of HACCP Stage 1. effective preparation and planning Stage 2. the application of the 7 HACCP principles Stage 3. the implementation of the HACCP study output Stage 4. the ongoing of the HACCP system
HACCP awarness and understanding of HACCP concept Identification and training of the HACCP team Baseline audit and gap analysis (evaluatecurrentcontrolmeasures) Plan the HACCP study (inc. the HACCP system structure) Stage 1. Preparation and planning
Describetheproduct and identifytheintendeduse Construct and validateprocessflow diagram Identifiyhazards and controlmeasures Identifycriticalcontrolpoints Establishcriticallimits Identify monitoring procedures Establishcorrective action plan procedure Validatethe HACCP plan Stage 2. HACCP studies and HACCP plan development
Determinemethod of implementation Agreeactions and timetable Conductawarnesstraining Set up monitoring systems Set upfacilities and equipment Confirmimplementationactionscomplete Verifyimplementationthrough audit Correctiveactions Stage 3. Implementing the HACCP plan
Definedstandards and regular audit Ongoingmaintenance Recordsreview and data analysis (verification) Corrective and preventative action Problem solving HACCP plan re-validation Documentationcontrolledupdate Stage 4. Maintaining the HACCP plan
Standards from the ISO 9000 family include standards which implement in variousorganisations systems of quality management. They were elaborated in such a way as toallow their application in different enterprises irrespective of branches in which theyoperate. It is, therefore, unimportant if a given organisation manufactures a product orprovides services. The ISO 9000 family comprises the following standards: – ISO 9000, which embraces the basis of the quality management systems and terminology [ISO 9000:2000], – ISO 9001, which specifies requirements concerning the quality managementsystem;it is precisely this standard that is implemented in enterprises [ISO 9001: 2000], – ISO 9004, which specifies guidelines for the improvement of the system alreadyimplemented in a company [ISO 9004:2000], – ISO 19011, which contains recommendations concerning auditing [ISO 19011:2002].
ISO 9000 standard in accordance with the eight principles: – customer-oriented, – leadership (leaders establish the unity of the aim and operation of theorganisation), – involvement of the personnel, – process approach, – system approach to management, – continuous improvement, – decision taking on the basis of facts, – mutually beneficial cooperation with suppliers. It also simplifies purchase and supplier qualification procedures and, atthe same time, reduces costs associated with these operations.The quality management system based on the ISO 9000 standard covers the followingareas: management of the organisation, management of resources, process of productrealisation as well as measurements, analyses and improvement.
The International Food Standard (IFS) and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) standard are based, among others, on the GHP/GMP principles, the HACCP system andthe ISO 9001 standard. However, the above standardsinclude requirements which are not found in any of the earlier discussed norms and comprise: – the obligation to include in the threat analysis of the hazards associated with allergies, – monitoring of workeffectiveness, – the need to cover facial hair with appropriate hygiene masks, – checking of the hands’ hygiene of workers, – the requirement to carry out application tests of products, – documented system of management of stocks of raw materials and products, complyingwiththe FIFO principle, – elaboration of a system which allows the company to obtain information about GMO, – elaboration of procedures in case of unusual situations, – the requirement to apply metal detectors, – elaboration of the list of places in the production-storage area where glass andotherhazardousmaterialoccur, – development of a procedure for the qualification, approval and verification of suppliers, – total ban of smoking on the entire area of the company. Both the IFS and BRC standard do not allow any freedom and each, even the smallestrequirement, is described precisely. The advantage of this approach is that there areno problems with the interpretation of requirements and later on with the overinterpretation of auditors.
The ISO 22000:2005 standard is a completely new standard published in September 2005 with the aim to unify principles of the quality systems used in the food industry. It is an optional standard because it goes beyondthe framework of the GHP/GMP and HACCP requirements. Its range encompasses [ISO 22000:2005]: – The Prerequisite Programme (PRP), i.e. the GHP/GMP principlesand GAP (Good Agricultural Practice), GVP (Good Veterinarian Practice),GPP (Good Production Practice), GDP (Good Distribution Practice ), GTP (Good Trading Practice), – the HACCP system, – the identification system (traceability system), – the quality management system ISO 9001:2000. ISO 22000:2005 integrates both the quality management system (ISO 9001:2000)and HACCP system. There are also cross references between ISO 22000, ISO 9004 andterms and definitions from ISO 9000. The most effective system of food quality and safety was designed, which implementedinto existing structure of management can give profits both organisation andother interested party. Furthermore, it may be implemented independently of other managementsystems existing into enterprise.
The level of GHP, GMP and HACCP system implementation in Polish food industry after accession to the European Union
The level of GHP implementation in Polish food industry Source: Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of GHP implementation in Polish food industry in 2005 Source: Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of GMP implementation in Polish food industry Source: Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of GMP implementation in Polish food industry in 2005 Source: Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of HACCP system implementation in Polish food industry Source: Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of HACCP system implementation in Polish food industry in 2005 and 2007 Source: Morkis G., 2007, 2008
Dynamic [%] of GHP, GMP and HACCP implementation in Polish food industry between 2004 and 2007 Source: Morkis G., 2008
Benefits from the implementation of HACCP system in terms of improving food safety Trafiałek i Kołozyn-Krajewska, 2007
Intangible benefits from the implementation of HACCP system in terms of improving food safety Trafiałek i Kołozyn-Krajewska, 2007
Tangible and economical benefits from the implementation of HACCP system in terms of improving food safety Trafiałek i Kołozyn-Krajewska, 2007
Mainbarriersduring HACCP implementation • training, • human resources, • planning, • knowledge and competence, • documentation, • resources, • management commitment
Barriers faced by firms in implementing HACCP Implementation of HACCP impeded by internal budgetary constraints Problems obtaining external funding Current food safety controls considered sufficient Lot of changes to our production processes needed before HACCP could be put in place The things needing to be done in order to implement HACCP overwhelmed us Other investments considered more important Lot of changes to our food safety controls needed before HACCP could be put in place Wide scale upgrading of the plant needed before HACCP could be put in place Scale of operation is too small to have HACCP Not sure whether the implementation of HACCP would meet future regulatory requirements Uncertain about the potential benefits of implementing HACCP HACCP difficult to implement because of internal organization of the company Concerned that HACCP would reduce our flexibility in production Thought it best to wait and see the experiences of other companies before implementing ourselves Did not really see HACCP as suitable for our plant Not sure whether the implementation of HACCP would meet our customers requirements Considered that costs of implementing HACCP likely to get cheaper over time Greater priority given to other issues than enhancing our food safety controls Food safety issues not considered sufficiently important to warrant the investment HACCP goes against all of the ways in which we have traditionally done things