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The University of Akron Summit College Business Technology Dept. 2440: 141 Web Site Administration Email Services Instructor: Enoch E. Damson The E-mail Environment E-mail evolved from a variety of proprietary systems

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the university of akron summit college business technology dept

The University of AkronSummit CollegeBusiness Technology Dept.

2440: 141Web Site Administration

Email Services

Instructor: Enoch E. Damson

the e mail environment
The E-mail Environment
  • E-mail evolved from a variety of proprietary systems
  • In the 1980s and 1990s, people often had e-mail addresses on a number of systems
  • The standard for current e-mail services is to use DNS with a special Mail Exchange record
    • The Mail Exchange record contains the IP address of the mail server for a domain
  • To allow users to send images, video, audio, and other binary files via e-mails, the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) specification was developed

Email Services

the e mail environment3
The E-mail Environment…
  • Email systems use three standard protocols to communicate:
    • For sending mail:
      • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    • For retrieving email from electronic mailboxes
      • Post Office Protocol (POP)
      • Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
  • Common e-mail packages (servers) include:
    • Sendmail, Postfix (Linux)
    • Microsoft Exchange (Windows)

Email Services

role of dns in e mail systems
Role of DNS in E-mail Systems
  • A domain name, such as example.org, needs to be associated with two IP addresses
    • One IP address can be for a Web site
    • Another IP address is for e-mail
  • To associate a domain name, or any other host name, with the IP address of an e-mail server, you need a Mail Exchange (MX) record

Email Services

mail services
Mail Services
  • Mail service has three distinct components:
    • Mail User Agent (MUA) – the mail client the user interacts with
      • E.g. Kmail, Alphine, Elm (Windows, Linux)
    • Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) – handles the process of getting mail from one site to another
      • E.g. Sendmail, Postfix (Linux)
      • Microsoft Exchange (Windows)
    • Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) – takes the message and gets it to the appropriate user mailbox, when received at the site
      • E.g. Procmail, Microsoft Exchange

Email Services

e mail system terminology
E-mail System Terminology
  • Masquerading
    • Replace actual host name with domain name
  • Relaying
    • The process of sending e-mail to an intermediate e-mail server before the message is transmitted to its final destination
    • This should not be allowed from the Internet because spammers could use it to send e-mail
  • Spammer
    • Someone who sends unsolicited e-mail, typically to try to sell something

Email Services

simple mail transfter protocol smtp
Simple Mail Transfter Protocol (SMTP)
  • The main standard for mail transport across the Internet
  • Defines the method of sending mail from a host to another
  • Its major strengths include its:
    • Simplicity
    • Platform-independent
  • Requires that a host be capable of sending ASCII text to another host
    • Typically done using port 25 (SMTP) on a mail server
      • E.g. telnet mailserver 25

Email Services

common smtp commands
Common SMTP Commands
  • Some major SMTP commands include:
    • HELO – used by clients to introduce themselves to the server (originating hostname)
      • E.g. HELO example.org
    • VRFY– verifies the email user
    • DATA – specifies the body of the message
    • QUIT – ends the SMTP session

Email Services

common smtp headers
Common SMTP Headers
  • Major SMTP headers include:
    • MAIL FROM: – informs the mail server about the email’s origin (sender’s email address)
      • E.g. MAIL FROM: someone@example.org
    • RCPT TO: – specifies the receiver’s email address
      • E.g. RCPT TO: customer@example.org
    • RECEIVED: – identifies the email server that processed the message
    • DATE: – indicates the date of the email
    • SUBJECT: – shows the subject of the email message
    • TO: – shows the recipient of the email message
    • CC: – sends copies of the message to a list of email addresses

Email Services

sample smtp session
Sample SMTP Session

HELO WKS1

250 web1.technowidgets.com Hello [127.0.0.1]

MAIL FROM: XYZ@yahoo.com

250 2.1.0 xyz@yahoo.com....Sender OK

RCPT TO: cbranco@technowidgets.com

250 2.1.5 cbranco@technowidgets.com

DATA

354 Start mail input; end with <CRLF>.<CRLF>

This is a simple message

.

QUIT

Email Services

installing a postfix server in linux
Installing a Postfix Server in Linux
  • Install Postfix via RPM in Fedora:
    • yum –y install postfix
  • Download the Postfix source code from www.postfix.org
    • Use the tar command to unpack the contents:
      • tar xvzf postfix-2.5.1.tar.gz
    • Change into the postfix-2.5.1 directory and run the make command:
      • cd postfix-2.5.1
      • make
    • Install the actual software
      • make install

Email Services

starting the postfix server in linux
Starting the Postfix Server in Linux
  • Disable Sendmail and enable Postfix, since Sendmail is the default mailer installed on Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) distros:
    • chkconfigsendmail off
    • chkconfig postfix on
  • Start the Postfix process:
    • service sendmail stop
    • service postfix start

Email Services

configuring the postfix server
Configuring the Postfix Server
  • Configuring the Postfix server is done with the /etc/postfix/main.cf configuration file
    • The process configuration file for Postfix is the master.cf file
      • Used to change how to run Postfix processes

Email Services

details of the main cf file
Details of the main.cf File
  • Some of the options in the main.cf file include:
    • myhostname
    • mydomain
    • myorigin
    • mydestination
    • mail_spool_directory
    • mynetworks
    • smtpd_banner
    • inet_protocol

Email Services

checking the configuration in linux
Checking the Configuration in Linux
  • To check the current Postfix configuration, use:
    • postfix check

Email Services

running the server in linux
Running the Server in Linux
  • Starting the Postfix mail server is done by passing the start option to the postfix run control script:
    • /etc/init.d/postfix start
  • To reload Postfix after changes to the configuration files, use:
    • /etc/init.d/postfix reload
  • To check the mail queue on your system in case it is filled up:
    • mailq
  • To flush the mail queue:
    • postfix flush

Email Services

installing and administering microsoft exchange
Installing and Administering Microsoft Exchange
  • The Microsoft Exchange Server can be much more than a simple e-mail server
    • It supports:
      • SMTP, POP, and IMAP protocols
      • Also supports the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
      • Collaboration in the form of chat services and instant messaging
      • Interaction with other e-mail servers such as Lotus Notes, Novell Groupwise, etc

Email Services

microsoft exchange features
Microsoft Exchange Features
  • The Microsoft Exchange Server also has the following features:
    • Unified messaging platform services
      • Supports Voice Profile for Internet Mail (VPIM) – for interoperability between voicemail systems
    • Conferencing services
      • The conferencing server provides high performance through the Telephony API – a programming interface for efficient multicasting
    • Chat services
      • Includes a chat service based on the Internet Relay Chat (IRC) protocol
    • Instant Messaging
    • Newsgroups
      • Requires the Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) for newsgroups

Email Services

post office protocol pop
Post Office Protocol (POP)
  • Created to allow for network-based access to mail stores
    • Many early Windows-based mail clients used POP for access to Internet mail
      • It allowed users to access UNIX-based mail servers
      • It was the dominant type of mail server on the Internet before the rise of the Microsoft Exchange in the 1990s
  • POP allows a central mail server to be managed to remain online at all times to receive mail for all its users
    • Received mail is queued on the server until a user connects via POP and downloads the queued mail
    • The user sends an e-mail through the mail server via SMTP

Email Services

internet message access protocol imap
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
  • Created to support some limitations of POP
    • Keeping cached copies of user’s mails on the client, etc
  • Created to support mail access in three modes:
    • Online
    • Offline
    • Disconnected

Email Services

pop and imap basics
POP and IMAP Basics
  • POP and IMAP each need a server process to handle requests
    • The server processes listen to ports 110 (POP) and 143 (IMAP)
  • Each request to and from the server is in clear-text ASCII

Email Services

common pop commands
Common POP Commands

Email Services

understanding pop3
Understanding POP3
  • More simplistic than IMAP4
  • First step is to log on with user name and password
  • Can be used to:
    • List mail
    • Read mail
    • Download mail
    • Delete mail

Email Services

common imap commands
Common IMAP Commands

Email Services

understanding imap4 uw imap
Understanding IMAP4/UW-IMAP
  • The University of Washington’s IMAP4 and UW-IMAP implement both POP and IMAP protocols
  • Its features include the following:
    • Messages remain on server
    • Requires much more space on server
    • To keep track of the status of messages, flags are used
      • \Recent
      • \Seen
      • \Answered
      • \Flagged
      • \Deleted
      • \Draft

Email Services

installing the imap4 uw imap and pop3 server in linux
Installing the IMAP4/UW-IMAP and POP3 Server in Linux
  • To install the uw-imap server (by the University of Washington):
    • yum –y install uw-imap
  • Once installed, you have to enable the daemons by either:
    • Editing their configuration files such as /etc/xinetd.d/imap
      • Change disable=yes to disable=no
    • Using chkconfig
      • chkconfigimap on
      • chkconfig ipop3 on
  • Restart/start the xinetd to recognize the changes
    • service xinetd restart
    • service xinetd start

Email Services

other mail service issues
Other Mail Service Issues
  • Other issues with mail services include:
    • SSL Security
    • Availability
    • Log Files

Email Services

e mail clients
E-mail Clients
  • Some e-mail clients include:
    • Elm (Linux)
    • Alpine (Windows, Linux)
    • Kmail (Windows, Linux)
    • Mutt (Windows, Linux)
    • Novell Evolution (Windows, Linux)

Email Services

configuring e mail clients
Configuring E-mail Clients
  • Typical information required for configuring e-mail clients include:
    • SMTP server IP address – outgoing server address
    • Your e-mail address
    • Your e-mail password
    • POP or IMAP server IP address – the incoming server address
      • the Exchange server and the University of Washington’s IMAP4 and UW-IMAP servers implement both protocols

Email Services