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Chapter 9 Motion Pictures Early Days Thomas Edison 1888 kinetoscope Edison’s assistant William Kennedy Dickson Edison also borrowed ideas from Marey and Muybridge and their photographs Idea was actually Ptolemy Greek astronomer who discovered persistence of vision Early Days

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chapter 9

Chapter 9

Motion Pictures

early days
Early Days
  • Thomas Edison 1888 kinetoscope
  • Edison’s assistant William Kennedy Dickson
  • Edison also borrowed ideas from Marey and Muybridge and their photographs
  • Idea was actually Ptolemy Greek astronomer who discovered persistence of vision
early days3
Early Days
  • Persistence of vision—human eye retains an image on the retina for a moment after the image disappears
  • Flip books
  • 1895 French brothers August and Louis Lumiere took Edison’s projector to a larger scale and called it cinematorgraphe
  • Finally, vitascope, developed by Armat and Jenkins—Vaudeville houses with live musical accompaniment
early days4
Early Days
  • Popularity grows and so does price to a nickel thus nickelodeons
the films
The Films
  • A Trip to the Moon 1902
  • The Great Rain Robbery 1903
  • Birth of A Nation D.W.Griffith 1915
  • Civil War epic three hours
  • Pantomine
  • EPS Cycle movies remain in Elite stage shortest period of time of any medium; more elite movies today than in early years
comedy
Comedy
  • Recurring theme throughout all media; comedy is usually most popular genre
  • Keystone Kops Mack Sennett 1912
  • Hal Roach Our Gang
  • Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy Who’s On First?
  • Charlie Chaplin The Tramp
  • Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd
world war i
World War I
  • Propaganda films
  • War Effort
  • 3 years over 175 films
  • The Kaiser’s Finish
  • This also sees Hollywood become the leading producer of films worldwide
sound
Sound
  • Many thought it would end the industry
  • Many actors with weak voices did not make the transition
  • Dr. Lee De Forest one of the first sound on film processes around 1923
  • Warner Bros. 1927 The Jazz Singer starring Al Jolson; changes everything
  • Silent films disappear quickly
censorship
Censorship
  • We should add this as the third step in the EPS cycle
  • Every time a medium goes popular, a wave of social change comes about and morality is threatened
  • Roaring 20s/Jazz Age
  • PCA Production Code Administration 1934
  • Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association 1922 Will H. Hays
  • Republican/Presbyterian—need I say more?
censorship10
Censorship
  • Hays gave fines for not getting the approval up to $25,000 a huge sum for that time
  • First real challenge was Otto Preminger
  • Released his films without Hays’ permission
  • Classic line from Clark Cable was also cited by Hays
studio system
Studio System
  • As we stated earlier, Payne Fund Studies show large numbers of teens going to movies weekly
  • To keep up with demand, Hollywood develops a system of major studio producing hundreds of films each year
  • Marketing departments create stars and contracts
studio system12
Studio System
  • Warner Brothers
  • MGM Metro Goldwin Mayer (sp?)
  • Paramount
  • 20th Century Fox
  • Universal
  • RKO
  • The Great Depression movies aid morale
musicals and other genres
Musicals and Other Genres
  • Westerns
  • Comedies
  • Musicals Busby Berkley
  • Gangsters
  • Romantic comedies
  • Frank Capra films It’s A Wonderful Life
  • Blockbusters Gone With The Wind
slide14
HUAC
  • 1947 House Un-American Activities Committee
  • Communist propaganda
  • Became a witch hunt
  • People were blacklisted and never worked again
  • Many would work under assumed names
  • Later credits were restored but many were ruined and were guilty of nothing
anti trust
Anti-trust
  • 1948 Supreme Court
  • Illegal monopoly of studios to operate all aspects from creation to distribution
  • Created laws prohibiting ownership of studios and theatres by same company
television
Television
  • 1948 TV networks emerge
  • Baby Boom after World War II kept many home with small children
  • Sports such as baseball transferred well to TV
  • Studios forced to create alternative experiences gives rise to 3-D and color in films (TV was still B &W)
ratings system
Ratings System
  • One more time, a new medium forces culture to review its morals
  • Because of TV, movies cater to youth culture and counter culture and contain sexually explicit and violent materials
  • Blackboard Jungle
  • Causes concerns
  • Enter the ratings system of 1960s
ratings system18
Ratings System
  • G
  • PG
  • R
  • X (now NC-17)
  • PG 13 added after Spielberg’s Gremlins and Indiana Jones and The Temple of Doom
  • XXX
1970s
1970s
  • Disaster and violence become genres
  • The Poseidon Adventure
  • Towering Inferno
  • Halloween
  • Texas Chainsaw Massacre
1990s
1990s
  • Special effects
  • Again, a response to programming on TV; cable allowed for more explicit programming
  • Hollywood responds with big budget special effects films
  • Video Rentals people believe will kill the industry
  • DVD digital video disk
  • Conglomerates
  • Future?