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Biology. 3–3 Cycles of Matter. 3-3 Cycles of Matter. How does matter move among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem?. Recycling in the Biosphere. Recycling in the Biosphere Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently.

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  1. Biology Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  2. 3–3 Cycles of Matter Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  3. 3-3 Cycles of Matter How does matter move among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem? Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  4. Recycling in the Biosphere Recycling in the Biosphere Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently. Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. Biogeochemical Cycles Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  5. The Water Cycle The Water Cycle All living things require water to survive. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  6. The Water Cycle Water moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  7. Nutrient Cycles How are nutrients important in living systems? Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  8. Nutrient Cycles Nutrient Cycles All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life are its nutrients. Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Similar to water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  9. Nutrient Cycles The Carbon Cycle Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen. Geochemical processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  10. Nutrient Cycles CO2 in Atmosphere Photosynthesis Volcanic activity feeding Respiration Erosion Human activity Respiration Decomposition CO2 in Ocean Uplift Deposition Photosynthesis feeding Fossil fuel Deposition Carbonate Rocks Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  11. Nutrient Cycles The Nitrogen Cycle All organisms require nitrogen to make proteins. Although nitrogen gas is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth, only certain types of bacteria can use this form directly. Such bacteria live in the soil and on the roots of plants called legumes. They convert nitrogen gas into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  12. Nutrient Cycles N2 in Atmosphere Synthetic fertilizer manufacturer Atmospheric nitrogen fixation Decomposition Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition excretion Decomposition excretion Bacterial nitrogen fixation NO3 and NO2 NH3 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  13. Nutrient Cycles Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called denitrification. This process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  14. Nutrient Cycles The Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus is essential to organisms because it helps forms important molecules like DNA and RNA. Most phosphorus exists in the form of inorganic phosphate. Inorganic phosphate is released into the soil and water as sediments wear down. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  15. Nutrient Cycles Organic phosphate moves through the food web and to the rest of the ecosystem. • Organisms • Land • Ocean • Sediments Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  16. Nutrient Limitation Nutrient Limitation The primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate at which organic matter is created by producers. One factor that controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem is the amount of available nutrients. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  17. Nutrient Limitation If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organism's growth. When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly, this substance is called a limiting nutrient. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  18. Nutrient Limitation When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient—such as runoff from heavily fertilized fields—the result is often an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers. This result is called an algal bloom. Algal blooms can disrupt the equilibrium of an ecosystem. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  19. 3–3 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  20. 3–3 Transpiration is part of the • water cycle. • carbon cycle. • nitrogen cycle. • phosphorus cycle. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  21. 3–3 Carbon is found in the atmosphere in the form of • carbohydrates. • carbon dioxide. • calcium carbonate. • ammonia. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  22. 3–3 Biologists describe nutrients as moving through cycles because the substances • start as simple organic forms that plants need. • provide “building blocks” and energy that organisms need. • are passed between organisms and the environment and then back to organisms. • are needed by organisms to carry out life processes. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  23. 3–3 The only organisms that can convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form useful to living things are nitrogen-fixing • plants. • bacteria. • detritivores. • animals. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  24. 3–3 When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is • runoff. • algal death. • algal bloom. • less primary productivity. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall


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