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Biology. 3–3 Cycles of Matter. 3-3 Cycles of Matter. How does matter move among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem?. Recycling in the Biosphere. Recycling in the Biosphere Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently.

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Biology l.jpg
Biology

Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall


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3–3 Cycles of Matter

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3-3 Cycles of Matter

How does matter move among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem?

Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall


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Recycling in the Biosphere

Recycling in the Biosphere

Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently.

Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.

Biogeochemical Cycles

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The Water Cycle

The Water Cycle

All living things require water to survive.

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The Water Cycle

Water moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.

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Nutrient Cycles

How are nutrients important in living systems?

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Nutrient Cycles

Nutrient Cycles

All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life are its nutrients.

Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions.

Similar to water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles.

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Nutrient Cycles

The Carbon Cycle

Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue.

Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen.

Geochemical processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans.

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Nutrient Cycles

CO2 in Atmosphere

Photosynthesis

Volcanic activity

feeding

Respiration

Erosion

Human activity

Respiration

Decomposition

CO2 in Ocean

Uplift

Deposition

Photosynthesis

feeding

Fossil fuel

Deposition

Carbonate Rocks

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Nutrient Cycles

The Nitrogen Cycle

All organisms require nitrogen to make proteins.

Although nitrogen gas is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth, only certain types of bacteria can use this form directly.

Such bacteria live in the soil and on the roots of plants called legumes. They convert nitrogen gas into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation.

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Nutrient Cycles

N2 in Atmosphere

Synthetic fertilizer manufacturer

Atmospheric nitrogen fixation

Decomposition

Uptake by producers

Reuse by consumers

Uptake by producers

Reuse by consumers

Decomposition excretion

Decomposition excretion

Bacterial nitrogen fixation

NO3 and NO2

NH3

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Nutrient Cycles

Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called denitrification.

This process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again.

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Nutrient Cycles

The Phosphorus Cycle

Phosphorus is essential to organisms because it helps forms important molecules like DNA and RNA.

Most phosphorus exists in the form of inorganic phosphate. Inorganic phosphate is released into the soil and water as sediments wear down.

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Nutrient Cycles

Organic phosphate moves through the food web and to the rest of the ecosystem.

  • Organisms

  • Land

  • Ocean

  • Sediments

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Nutrient Limitation

Nutrient Limitation

The primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate at which organic matter is created by producers.

One factor that controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem is the amount of available nutrients.

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Nutrient Limitation

If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organism's growth.

When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly, this substance is called a limiting nutrient.

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Nutrient Limitation

When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient—such as runoff from heavily fertilized fields—the result is often an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers.

This result is called an algal bloom.

Algal blooms can disrupt the equilibrium of an ecosystem.

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3–3

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3–3

Transpiration is part of the

  • water cycle.

  • carbon cycle.

  • nitrogen cycle.

  • phosphorus cycle.

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3–3

Carbon is found in the atmosphere in the form of

  • carbohydrates.

  • carbon dioxide.

  • calcium carbonate.

  • ammonia.

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3–3

Biologists describe nutrients as moving through cycles because the substances

  • start as simple organic forms that plants need.

  • provide “building blocks” and energy that organisms need.

  • are passed between organisms and the environment and then back to organisms.

  • are needed by organisms to carry out life processes.

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3–3

The only organisms that can convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form useful to living things are nitrogen-fixing

  • plants.

  • bacteria.

  • detritivores.

  • animals.

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3–3

When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is

  • runoff.

  • algal death.

  • algal bloom.

  • less primary productivity.

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