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Bananas and Plantains. Family: Musaceae Genus: Musa Species: M. acuminata M. balbisiana. Genus Musa Section Eumusa. Major species of economic importance Musa acuminata (A genome) Musa balbisiana (B genome) Ploidy levels of commercial bananas Diploid, AA and BB

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bananas and plantains

Bananas and Plantains

Family: Musaceae

Genus: Musa

Species:

M. acuminata

M. balbisiana

genus musa section eumusa
Genus MusaSection Eumusa
  • Major species of economic importance
    • Musa acuminata (A genome)
    • Musa balbisiana (B genome)
  • Ploidy levels of commercial bananas
    • Diploid, AA and BB
    • Triploid, AAA, AAB, ABB
    • Tetraploid, AAAA, AABB, ABBB
  • Major evolutionary events
    • Probably millennia ago

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University

types of bananas
Types of Bananas
  • Banana
    • Desert banana, fresh consumption
    • AAA
  • Plantain
    • Cooking, Meal, Vegetable banana
    • Plátano, banano macho
    • AAB or ABB

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banana origin and domestication

ABB

AAB

ABBB

AB

AAB

Industry developed in Late 19th Century

AAA

ABB

AA

AABB

AAAB

Banana Origin and Domestication

Reached Europe

by 1516

Before 200 AD

AA

AAA

AAB

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adaptation hot humid tropics
Adaptation: Hot Humid Tropics
  • Temperature
    • Frost free
    • Mean temperature of 27 C (80 F)
    • Minimum winter temp of 15.5 C (60 F)
  • Moisture
    • Rain, 100 mm (4.0”) per month
  • Soil
    • Good drainage is needed
    • Slightly acid, pH 5.5 to 6.5

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slide6

January 15.5 C isotherm

1,270 mm isohyets

1,270 mm isohyets

June 15.5 C isotherm

Banana Cultivation and ClimateMost Banana/Plantain Production within Region with Winter Temperate Greater than 15.5 C (60 F) and Rainfall greater than 1,270 mm (50”)

(Figure 6.1 from Simmonds, 1966)

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banana cultivation and climate bananas grown for local consumption

January 15.5 C isotherm

B

1,270 mm isohyets

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

1,270 mm isohyets

B

B

B

June 15.5 C isotherm

(Figure 6.1 from Simmonds, 1966)

Banana Cultivation and ClimateBananas Grown for Local Consumption

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University

banana cultivation and climate bananas grown for export t

January 15.5 C isotherm

B

1,270 mm isohyets

T

B

T

B

B

B

T

B

T

T

B

B

B

B

B

T

T

B

T

T

B

T

T

B

B

B

B

B

T

B

B

B

B

1,270 mm isohyets

B

T

T

B

B

T

T

T

June 15.5 C isotherm

Banana Cultivation and ClimateBananas Grown for Export = T

(Figure 6.1 from Simmonds, 1966)

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weather problems
Weather Problems
  • Wind
    • 15-20 mph - leaf damage, twisting, breakage
    • 40 mph - considerable damage
    • 60 mph - complete destruction
  • Why
    • Pseudostem not as strong as woody stem
    • Large leaves that catch wind
    • Shallow root system

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world production 1 000s mt
World Production (1,000s mt)

FAOSTAT database, 2000-2002

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world production
World Production (%)

FAOSTAT database, 2000-2002

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world production leading producing countries
World Production Leading Producing Countries

FAOSTAT database, 2000-2002

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University

world production faostat database 2000 2002
World ProductionFAOSTAT database, 2000-2002
  • Production
    • Bananas, 72 million MT (56% Asia)
    • Plantains, 25 million MT (89% Africa)
      • Staple food for 70 million Africans
    • 90% grown on small farms and consumed locally
    • 10% exported from plantations
      • Latin America and Caribbean region

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University

world yields mt ha
World Yields (mt/ha)

FAOSTAT database, 2000-2002

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plant structure monocot
Plant StructureMonocot
  • Perennial herb
    • All leaves/inflorescence origin from under ground corm
      • Spreads via rhizomes
      • Plants “walk”
    • Largest plant without woody trunk
      • Pseudostem, leaf bases
    • Fruits once

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banana varieties
Banana Varieties
  • Gros Michel (Big Mike)
    • Leading cv for 100 years
    • Good production, cycle 13-15 months
    • Tall plants (4-8 m), wind damage
    • Good post harvest qualities
      • Ripened uniformly
      • Resistant to bruising and discoloration
    • Shipped as bunches
    • Susceptible to Panama disease
      • Replaced by Cavendish - resistant to Panama disease

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banana varieties17
Banana Varieties
  • Cavendish
    • Currently the leading cv for export
    • Heavy production, cycle 11 months
    • Smaller plant (2-3 m) - less wind damage
    • Marginal post harvest qualities
      • Does not ripen uniformly - use special chambers
      • Susceptible to bruising and discoloration
    • Shipped packed in boxes
    • Resistant to Panama disease

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many locally important varieties
Many Locally Important Varieties
  • Active breeding in Africa, South America, and Asia

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flower structure
Flower Structure
  • Three types of flowers on inflorescence
    • Female flowers - develop into fruit
    • Hermaphroditic flowers
    • Male flowers
  • Fruit is a berry

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banana flower
Banana flower

Female

Male

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banana flower21
Banana flower

Female

Three months from

flowering to harvest

Male

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botanically the banana is a berry one pistil one or many seed
Botanically the Banana is a BerryOne pistilOne or many seed

Other Berries

Tomato

Kiwi

Grape

Persimmon

Seed Remnants

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production cycle
Production Cycle
  • Propagation
    • Vegetative
    • Rhizomes that are 6-8” diameter
    • Planted within hours of digging
    • Special fields for production of rhizomes for new orchards
  • Nematode problems
    • Hot water treatment (65°C)
    • Chemical dips

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planting
Planting
  • Density
    • 2.9 m (8.5’) square
    • 1,812 pl/ha (725 pl/ac)
  • Size of export plantation
    • Need to supply 36,000 mt/year
    • Yield 40 mt/ha -> 1,000 ha
    • Supply 1,000 mt/ship every 10 days
    • Four years to attain commercial production

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production
Production
  • Banana plants
    • Take 8-9 months to flower
      • 11-14 leaves
      • Six leaves needed for good production
    • Bunch take 3 months to develop
    • Fruiting cycle for Dwarf Cavendish is 11 months
  • Banana plants “walk”

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training and plant selection
Training and Plant Selection
  • Banana plants “walk”
    • Select and train sucker for next crop to not interfere with growing bunch
    • When harvest fruit the sucker should be 2 m (5-6’)
    • Eliminate suckers that are
      • Poorly positioned
      • Too small
      • Unhealthy

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production27

Fruiting Stem

1st Replacement

Daughter

2nd Replacement

Grand daughter

Production

Fruiting Mat

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panama disease
Panama Disease
  • Fusarium oxysporum
    • Caused the demise of Gros Michel
    • Plantains are generally resistant
  • Control
    • Resistant varieties
    • New strain of the pathogen in Asia overcomes Cavendish resistance gene
  • Need to develop a wider range of varieties for the export market

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panama disease29
Panama Disease

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black sigatoka banana leaf spot
Black SigatokaBanana Leaf Spot
  • Mycosphaerella - Cercospora
    • Native to Southeast Asia
  • History
    • Early 1960s - Pacific and Asia
    • Early 1970s - Latin America
    • Late 1970s - Gabon in Africa - spread through Africa
  • Symptoms
    • Small translucent pale yellow streaks
    • Necrotic lesions (light gray w/ yellow halo)
    • Lesions coalesce and destroy leaf

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University

black sigatoka banana leaf spot31
Black SigatokaBanana Leaf Spot
  • Yield Losses - by losing leaf area
    • This is generally not a problem in mixed
    • 50% yield loss
    • Also cause premature ripening in harvested fruit
  • Control
    • Mixed plantings
      • Generally not a serious problem
    • Monoculture
      • Fungicides (Manzate)
      • Resistant varieties

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bagging of the fruit
Bagging of the Fruit
  • Weekly inspection
    • Last true hand is 4” long
    • Remove terminal end of bunch
    • Mark with ribbon - colors change with the week
    • Cover with perforated polyethylene bag
  • Why
    • Protection
      • Pests
      • Damage from leaves
      • Dust and dirt
    • Advance ripening

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fertility
Fertility
  • Forty tons of bananas per hectare
    • 80 kg N = 80 kg N
    • 20 kg P2O5 = 9 kg P
    • 240 kg K2O = 200 kg K

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supporting the crop
Supporting the Crop
  • 52% of plant weight is the raceme
    • Prop with poles
    • Guide lines to base of adjacent plant
    • Leaf pruning can reduce problems with wind damage

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harvest
Harvest
  • Crew harvests at 3-4 day intervals
    • Look for colored ribbons which indicate age of bunch
  • Minimum size
    • 5 hands
    • Pick green, with certain size
  • Banana bunch weighs 90-110 lbs
    • Two man operation
    • Hung on hook on cable system

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slide36
Cable system runs from banana field to the packing house

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fruit packing and grading
Fruit Packing and Grading
  • Separate into hands
  • Wash to prevent staining
  • Pack in boxes

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fruit packing and grading38
Fruit Packing and Grading
  • Pack in boxes
    • Only pack unblemished fruit

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post harvest
Post Harvest
  • Storage temperature
    • 57 - 59 F
    • Below 56 F may cause chilling injury
  • Bananas are ripened for marketing
    • 58-64 F
    • Ethylene treatment

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nutritional value
Nutritional Value
  • 100 gm edible pulp
    • 85 calories, mostly carbohydrates
    • Vitamin, A, C, B1, B2, niacin
    • Minerals, very high in K
      • Reduce risk of high blood pressure and strokes

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