The 2008 Kauffman-Max Planck Annual Summit “Rethinking the Role of the University and Public Research for the Entrepreneurial Age”, Munich, June 8-11, 2008 Which tertiary education institutions in times of accelerated technical change? A system approach towards knowledge networks and enhanced societal trust Manuel Heitor Secretary of State for Science, Technology and Higher Education Portugal
Technical Change: materialsSource: Michael Ashby (1998); see also, IPTS(1999) 1800 1960 10 000 BC 5000 BC 0 1000 1500 1900 1940 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 GOLD COOPER METALS METALS BRONZE GLASSY METALS AL-LITHIUM ALLOYS DUAL PHASE STEELS MICROALLOYED STEELS IRON NEW SUPER ALLOYS DEVELOPMENT SLOW MOSTLY QUALITY CONTROL AND PROCESSING POLYMERS CAST IRON SKIN FIBRE GUMS STEELS ALLOY IVORY STEELS COMPOSITES RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SURFACE ENGINEERING LIGHT ALLOYS POLYMERS BRICKS (with STRAW) RUBBER WOOD SUPER ALLOYS CONDUCTING POLYMERS PAPER HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMERS TITANIUM ZINCONIUM ETC STONE ALLOYS COMPOSITES FLINT HIGH MODULUS POLYMERS BAKELITE POTTERT CERAMIC COMPOSITES GLASS EPOXIES METAL-MATRIX NYLON CEMENT COMPOSITES POLYESTERS CERAMICS CERAMICS KEVLAR REFRACTORIES SUPERCONDUCTORS PORTLAND CEMENT TOUGH ENGINEERING CERAMICS FUSED SILICA CERMETS 10000 BC 0 1000 1500 1800 1900 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 5000 BC
The Rationale - 1: what is changing? • The nature of knowledge production and usage is changing: innovation is more open, more global and involves a growing range of players. • Networking and cooperation are becoming more important for successful innovation: users and suppliers play a growing role (e.g., Eric Von Hippel, 2005). • This also affects the financing of S&T and technical change: a greater range of instruments and policies are emerging, markets and intermediaries are evolving rapidly.
The Rationale - 2 1. A large consensus: The accelerated rate of technical change has fostered an increasingly need to promote the capacity to learn! 2. This requires a better understanding of the institutional framework and the structure of incentives in higher education, as well as going beyond the institutional context, and consider the substance of teaching/learning: “the class-room as a living laboratory”! 3. But this implies strengthening governance structures and institutional leadership, in a way that contributes to strengthen the social constituency for science and technology and a “learning society” ...
The Rationale - 3 • An underlying assumption (Rosenberg, 2002): • The university as an economic institution! • …and university leaders as fund raisers! 2. The US university system as a “role model” for its fast rate of responsiveness to the economic changes and contribution to the creation of wealth. 3. This perception is leading to an institutional convergence between what universities do (and are supposed to do) and what firms and other agents do. Much remains to learn about the “Entrepreneurial University”: in a reducionist view, it is a potential threat to the institutional integrity of the university and the future of scientific research due to the commoditization of knowledge?
…what is best about American higher education – we create opportunity. That is our mission. That is our business. That is first and foremost what society expects of us. Charles Vest, in “The American Research University” University of California Press, 2007
The main argument Strengthening the knowledge dimension and external societal links (i.e., “system linkages”) are critical in making the institutional changes required for tertiary education institutions, TEIs, to be “agents of change” and meet the needs of global competition and the knowledge economy. This requires strengthening the institutional integrity of TEIs, while entering into a myriad of entrepreneurial relations, as well as to establish long term relations with specific and specialized actors: build societal trust!
The structure of the talk • improved funding and equity for enlarged participation rates; • strengthening knowledge production and internalization for improved knowledge networks; • fostering diversified systems for improved knowledge transmission and learning; • strengthening institutional integrity together with systems linkages Summary: strengthen societal trust on tertiary education institutions, TEIs
Proposition 1 Students matter!...and we need to enlarge access to TE • Diversify, diversify, diversify… • (access - new publics; institutions; incentives…) • The “hidden” barriers : basic & secondary education… • …the need to “open” students paths and choices! • Which economics for tertiary education? • How to raise private funding? • …and how to guarantee a better share of public and private funding? • Which share of institutional and competitive funding sources? • More importantly, developments in global capital markets present the opportunity to new financing possibilities. • Free education to all students, by guaranteeing graduates to share the costs? (Nick Barr, LSE) • …but, which share of grants/loans?...
2008 OECD Education at a Glance: Student support schemes and levels Source:. Public subsidies for education to households and other private entities as a percentage of total public expenditure on education, by type of subsidy; OECD (2007). Reference Year: 2004
Example 1: Opening-up Tertiary Education in Portugal Some key measures and results (2006-2007):Access • THE BOLOGNA PROCESS: dynamic and on-going… • - 87% of initial educational programs in 2007-2008. …and beyond: • NEW ACCESS REGIME FOR ADULTS • - 11.773 new adults entered Tertiary Education in 2007-2008 • - 10.850 in 2006-2007 • (while, just 900 in 2005-2006) • NEW LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR SHORT VOCATIONAL CYCLES - (CETs) • - More than 4.800 admitted students in 2007 • - Around 150 CETs in Tertiary Education Institutions • NEW STUDENT LOANS SYSTEM • - 3.000 loans contracted in the period November 2007 – May 2008
Guarantee commission (fee) Guarantee (2) State(1) Counter Guarantee Financial Support Legal environment and framework • Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education • Portfolio guarantee (covers losses up to 10% of bank loan values) • Up to Eur 5000 per academic year Example 1:Student loans with mutual guarantee Extended Guarantee Triangular Relationship Banks Students (both undergraduate and postgraduate) Bank loan (3) Guarantee Sheme Source: SPGM, 2008
What do we need to know from policy Research? • 1. Whichpolicy criteria to foster student enrolment? • horizontally equitable schemes, with good value for students; • financially sustainable at higher volumes of student take-up; • low risk for government and financial institutions; • minimum additional administrative infrastructure. • 2. Does “debt aversion” augments social inequalities? • which share of grants/loans?...how to evolve with loan schemes? • 3. Which new funding mechanisms ? • What have we learnt about experiences with loan systems, venture capital, risk capital and tax incentives?
2. strengthening knowledge production and internalization for improved knowledge networks
The issue:…and even larger differences in performance at leading reference levels
If ability, and not the circumstances of family fortune, determines who shall receive higher education, then we shall be assured of constantly improving quality at every level of scientific activity. Vannevar Bush to President Harry Truman July 5, 1945
Proposition 2 The top of the system matters!...and we need to foster the internationalization of research universities and their specialization. But competition also matters! • The nature of science as a complex whole (John Ziman, 1968, 1978, 2000), ...and “science is social”, referring to “the whole network of social and epistemic practices where scientific beliefs actually emerge and are sustained”. • The “hidden” barriers: • gender: how to foster women engagement in S&T? • the appropriation of S&T culture by society. • key elements of history (namely, US…) are those of diversity of policies and increasing “institutional specialization” and of the clarification of the unique roles of the private and public incentives to support science and technology, S&T
What do we need to know from policy research? • a better understanding of the way private funding complements (not replaces…) public expenditure on academic research… • …to keep the proper balance between open science and commercially oriented R&D based upon proprietary information. • But, always, people, knowledge and ideas… • …how to attract morehuman resources for knowledge intensive activities? • A better link between research training and research strengths. • Can Europe “emulate” the US Graduate schools? • Can we rely in traditional departments?How to ensure that graduate schools permit better employability of their graduates? Can the skills be transferable? • the conditions able to strengthen institutions and the necessary critical masses to compete at the highest international level
The Future of Science and Technology in Europeand in the US Is there room for a common vision of the future of S&T in Europe and the US? Such a future would require to: • Multiply transatlantic, global R&D and HE networks • Develop international R&D organisations and programmes • Invent jointly new economic drivers • Diversify and combine funding sources • Promote the transatlantic debate for new research agendas However, new shaping factors (political, economic) and very new shaping actors shall be needed in order to change
Example 2: Opening-up Tertiary Education in Portugal Some key measures and results (2006-2007): Commitment to Science • NEW CONTRACTS FOR PhD RESEARCHERS/TEACHERS • - 630 new contracts supported in 2007 • - At least 1.000 new contracts supported until 2009 • DOCTORATE AND POST-DOCTORATE GRANTS • - Around 2.080 new PhD grants in 2007 (a 77% increase from 2005) • - Around 900 new Post-Doctorate grants in 2007 (a 41% increase from 2005) • INTERNATIONALIZATION - PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE FUTURE R&D CONSORTIA WITH POST-GRADUATE PROGRAMS - MIT-PORTUGAL: 4 new PhDs in Engineering Systems (Energy, Transports, Advanced Manufacturing and Bioengineering) - CMU-PORTUGAL: 5 new PhDs in ICTs - UTAustin-PORTUGAL: 3 new PhDs in Digital Media, Advanced Computing and Mathematics
3. fostering diversified systems for improved knowledge transmission and learning
Proposition 3 “how people learn?” matters and require diversified institutions and learning systems • designing effective learning environments includes considering the goals for learning and goals for students (US´s National Academies effort on “How People Learn”, 2000). • But we also need to reduce drop-out (failure) rates in tertiary education… • …and to involve students in research activities since their early stages at our institutions. • education at all levels must consider that learning a new practice requires moving through discovery, invention, and production not once, but many times, in different contexts and different combinations. • beyond R&D: R&T and, above all, R&L (Research and Learning)
The substance of learning: How difficult is “Research & Learning”? Richard Nelson (2003), “On the uneven evolution of human know-how”: …” It may take many years before the lasting effects of a new mode of instruction can be learned. And there may be many different kinds of impact to be considered.” …”The difficulties here clearly reside in the education process itself. Education as currently practiced largely involves a set of strategies and practices that are generally understood as appropriate in particular contexts, but with a lot of variation across individual classrooms and teachers. There are indeed canons of good practice. But not many educationists are ready to propose that there are a set of foolproof "cake recipes" that define best practice in teaching. And while novice teachers may learn a lot from observing able experienced teachers, every teacher has his own particular strengths and weaknesses, and style of operating.”
Issues in the European landscale: Bologna…a sucessful story:Why ? • a process… • …voluntary, but driven by a large consensus that has been formed about the great challenges and opportunities facing higher education systems in EU, namely against those in US. • Understanding the relationship between Bologna reforms and the social and national contexts in which they take place and expanding the European policy dialogue in higher education to include more issues, remain significant challenges in the current process… • It is also clear that higher education systems will continue to be concerned with quality!
What do we need to know from policy research? • Moving along student autonomy? • ...to allow students to determine their own learning paths and trajectories, namely along education cycles, but also across institutions in our different regions and countries. • The conditions to foster effective international TEIs • Taking stock of the diversity and evolution of concrete student-centred parameters.
4. strengthening institutional integrity together with systems linkages
Proposition 4 We need to preserve the institutional integrity of TEIs, at the same time we need to promote dynamic and responsive institutions • Key questions: • Economic competition – omitting information as a competition tool; • Proprietary knowledge – ignoring and “depleting” the science commons hindering the fostering of new knowledge; • …multiple objectives should not be pursued at the cost of compromising learning and research environments for students. • Look at students: education, besides offering a specific qualification, should ensure the assimilation of learning skills. • Raising the level of autonomy for TEIs, is one of the main objectives of sector reforms across different countries in recent years: getting to “entrepreneurial institutions”?
Policy Implications for EU : institutions “Notably there is clear evidence that success in improving quality within institutions is directly correlated with the degree of institutional autonomy. (…) At the same time, the role of leadership within universities is alsocritical.” EUA`s Trends IV, 2005 Patterns of convergence – strengthened autonomy: The underlying motivations for introducing greater autonomy, in a nutshell, it is to improve the responsiveness of HEIs to an expanded set of national and societal demands. This responsiveness can be improved through enhanced capacity for strategic thinking and taking advantage of emerging opportunities in a dynamic way. Patterns of convergence – strengthened regulatory regimes: The second orientation is to strengthen the regulatory regime so that a more autonomous HEI sector responds more effectively to the requirements of public interest. This may be seen as a contradictory trend of constraining institutional autonomy through more indirect mechanisms. Which way to Independent legal status (ILS) and university foundations? …it requires a common EU perspective for strengthening TE institutions!
Example 3: Opening-up Tertiary Education in Portugal Some key measures and results (2006-2007): Legal Reform • The New Legal Regime of Higher Education Institutions (RJIES) • Diversity of governance systems and increased autonomy • Setting up Governing Boards with external participation • Possibility of independent legal status for public institutions: namely as public foundations) • Establishment of consortia among institutions • Recognition of researchcentres as part of University management framework. • The creation of conditions to foster the national and international mobility of students and graduates • New Regulations on Arrangements for Changes of Study Programmes, Transfers and Return to Higher Education • New legal framework for the recognition of foreign degrees, which simplifies the system for recognizing foreign degrees in Portugal.
What do we need to know from policy research? • How far university networks can effectively contribute to foster basic university goals and preserve institutional integrity? …many university clusters (LERU, IDEA; CLUSTER, …) have been particularly focus on corporate matters and we argue that there is a need for a platform of the various clusters and associations of research universities, notably for stimulating the political debate among the various stakeholders at international level and for assisting in the networking of national constituencies fostering integrity in tertiary education.
Final Proposition: “umbrella” Accelerate reform of TEIs by strengthening external societal links and “system linkages” …creating “new” reinforced institutions that have gained societal trust • To cope with such a variety of demands and with a continuously changing environment, we all know that the tertiary education systems, in particular, needs to be diversified. • new leaderships for our institutions: attention should be given to the need to promote an international market of excellence for university leaders, as also a critical path to attract our best researchers to take the lead of our universities. • the public understanding of S&T and of the role TEIs on scientific and technical development
Which tertiary education institutions in times of accelerated technical change?A system approach towards knowledge networks and enhanced societal trust The 2008 Kauffman-Max Planck Annual Summit on “Rethinking the Role of the University and Public Research for the Entrepreneurial Age”, Munich, June 8-11, 2008