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Activities of multinational enterprises – Eurostat’s approach. Szymon Bielecki European Commission Eurostat, Unit G2 Structural Business Statistics. Outline. AMNE and FATS – general concepts FATS compilation and dissemination in the European Union Broader context of EU-FATS.

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activities of multinational enterprises eurostat s approach

Activities of multinational enterprises –Eurostat’s approach

Szymon Bielecki

European Commission

Eurostat, Unit G2 Structural Business Statistics

  • AMNE and FATS – general concepts
  • FATS compilation and dissemination in the European Union
  • Broader context of EU-FATS

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

what are fats and amne
What are FATS and AMNE?


  • In the past: Foreign Affiliates’ Trade in Services
  • Now:Foreign AffiliaTes Statistics
  • statistics describing the overall operations of foreign-controlled affiliates (direct investment enterprises)
  • a ‘bridge’ between business statistics and FDI/BoP
  • part of AMNE statistics (Activities of MultiNational Enterprises)
  • traditional focus on services, now also manufacturing included
  • mode 3 of international supply of services
  • chapter IV of MSITS 2010, consistent with international standards (BPM6, BD4, SNA2008)
statistical unit vs reporting unit
Statistical unit vs. reporting unit
  • Inward FATS:

…we ask a resident enterprise being an affiliate of a foreign enterprise group about its own characteristics

THUS: statistical unit = reporting unit

  • Outward FATS:

…we ask a resident enterprise being head of an enterprise group about characteristics of other enterprises (its foreign affiliates)

THUS: statistical unit ≠ reporting unit

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

rationale for compiling fats
Rationale for compiling FATS
  • extend the information provided by international trade statistics, FDI statistics and business statistics
  • describe international commercial presence of enterprises
  • measure the real economic impact of direct investment flows
  • complement the information on economic links between countries
  • very relevant for research on economic globalisation – both in terms of reasons and effects/impacts
  • policy relevant – GATS, taxation, movement of capital
dimensions of fats
Dimensions of FATS
  • Economic activity of the foreign affiliate
    • MSITS: ISIC (ICFA groupings, focus on services)
    • EU: NACE (EU implementation of ISIC, goods and services)
  • Partner country
    • Inward FATS: country of the (ultimate) controlling investor
    • Outward FATS: country of residency of the foreign affiliate
  • Characteristics (variables)
  • Compiling country

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

fats variables msits sna
FATS variables (MSITS, SNA)

Basic measures:

  • sales (turnover) and/or output
  • employment
  • value added
  • exports and imports of goods and services
  • number of enterprises (affiliates)

Additional measures: assets, compensation of employees, net worth, net operating surplus, gross fixed capital formation, taxes on income, research and development expenditures, purchases of goods and services (intermediate consumption)

common legal framework of fats in the eu
Common legal framework of FATS in the EU
  • Regulation (EC) No 716/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on Community statistics on the structure and activity of foreign affiliates

  • Implementing regulations of the European Commission on derogations, definitions, classifications, quality reporting
  • FATS Recommendations Manual 2009 edition

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

obligatory fats characteristics variables
Obligatory FATS characteristics (variables)
  • Number of enterprises
  • Turnover
  • Number of persons employed
  • Value added at factor cost
  • Gross investment in tangible goods
  • Personnel costs
  • Production value
  • Total purchases of goods and services
  • Purchases of goods and services for resale
  • Total intra-mural R&D expenditure
  • Total number of R&D personnel

Inward & Outward FATS

Inward FATS

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

data requirements
Data requirements
  • Periodicity: annual (first compulsory reference period 2007)
  • Timeliness: t+20 months
  • Classification: NACE (Rev. 2 in the course of implementation)
  • Dimensions:
    • Inward FATS: 1) 26+14 main partners x detailed activities

2) all partners x total economy (sections B-N excl. K)

    • Outward FATS: 1) 9 main partners x detailed activities

2) 24 other partners x 17 main activities

3) all partners x total economy (sec. B-S excl. O)

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

limitations and challenges
Limitations and challenges
  • complexity, intransparency and dynamics of large multinationial corporations’ structures
  • data completeness – population frame, sampling, size thresholds, response rate, estimations and imputation
  • consolidated reporting (turnover, trade variables)
  • confidentiality – level of detail for economic activity, links to other statistical domains (SBS), size of the economy
  • asymmetries Inward vs. Outward FATS – international cooperation very useful
  • lack of data cross-checking possibilities

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

outward fats data some figures
Outward FATS data – some figures…

2008 data, total of non-EU affiliates, total economic activity

(Note: UK and Spain not available)

and interesting facts
…and interesting facts
  • Germany is the biggest contributor in all 3 variables and almost all destinations
  • the highest employment per affiliate: Cyprus (510)
  • 41% of ‘German’ turnover recorded by US affiliates
  • US affiliates very important also for the Netherlands, Italy, Sweden, Finland and Belgium
  • Italy particularly present in Africa, Netherlands in S-E Asia
  • 21% of turnover for the Netherlands recorded by affiliates resident in offshore financial centres
  • other specific strong links: NL→CH, SE→NO, AT→HR, NL→RU, FI→RU, SE→UA, IT→KZ, FI→CN, IT→IL, NL→AE, IT→SA, NL→CA, NL→AR, IT→BR, IT→VE, PT→KY,PT→AO
inward fats data overview
Inward FATS data overview

2007 data, total of affiliates controlled from outside the EU, total econ. activity

(Note: France not available)

some ifats related facts and interpretations
Some IFATS related facts and interpretations
  • for most of the EU countries the US parent companies play the most important role (in Cyprus 70%, in the Netherlands 67% of total turnover in non-EU controlled enterprises)
  • Germany, Hungary and the UK attractive for companies from S-E Asia; Bulgaria for Russia, Ukraine and countries of Central Asia and Middle East
  • large turnover of Swiss-controlled affiliates in Romania and Slovenia
  • Portugal with 17.5% of affiliates controlled from offshore financial centres
  • 32% of Slovak employment in foreign controlled companies, 50% of Slovak and Hungarian turnover
  • affiliates controlled from another EU member more numerous than those controlled by non-EU countries (except for UK)
  • the most important destinations inside the EU: Germany, Hungary, UK, Italy and Bulgaria; importance of neighbours’ links
  • some other interesting links: UA→HU, IL→HU, SC→HU, AU/NZ→UK, CA→UK, ZA→UK,
links of fats with other statistical domains
Links of FATS with other statistical domains
  • FATS extend the information provided by international trade in goods and services statistics (transactions), FDI statistics (flows, stocks, income) and business statistics (characteristics of resident enterprises)
  • data can and should be analysed in the context of the other statistical domains
  • the same classification used for FATS, FDI and SBS (economic activity), but different for international trade
  • trade variables (intra-firm, goods/services) would be very interesting but seem unfeasible in FATS
relation between fdi statistics and fats
Relation between FDI statistics and FATS
  • FDI – cross-bordercapital links between enterprises
  • FATS – real economic activity of the capital located abroad (extension of the information provided byFDI)
  • FDI – 10% or more of voting power in the FDI enterprise (ownership)
  • FATS – concept of control over the affiliate (e.g. ‘power to name the majority of its directors or otherwise to legally direct its actions’ (MSITS); in practice 50%+ voting power)
  • FDI – statistics according to individual country shares
  • FATS – affiliate’s characteristics attributed as a total
data collection links to fdi and sbs
Data collection links to FDI and SBS
  • FATS variables defined like in the SBS framework
  • Commonly used synergies in data collection:
    • Inward FATS: business registers, business statistics surveys
    • Outward FATS: FDI registers, FDI surveys (as an annex)
  • Two basic approaches to developing FATS:
    • directly request information from enterprises via surveys (Inward FATS – affiliates, Outward FATS – parents)
    • (Inward FATS only) identify the foreign-controlled subset of the existing data on resident enterprises (SBS)
  • Advantages of separate FATS surveys (approach 1):
    • possibility of tailoring the requested data (variables, classifications) and survey periodicity to data compiler’s needs and data reporters’ capacities
    • no automatic use of SBS/FDI size thresholds
eurogroups register
EuroGroups Register
  • Register of multinational corporations active in the EU
  • Ongoing project, 5000 biggest groups, soon 10000
  • Corporate structures, ID numbers, key characteristics (where available), UCI, SPE…
  • integration and cooperation between business statistics and investment statistics
  • Source: commercial databases (Bureau van Dijk, Dun&Bradstreet), combined by Eurostat, verified and completed by national statistical data compilers
  • Access restricted to EU NSIs and (soon) NCBs
  • Main users: FATS and FDI statisticians

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

Thank you very much

for your attention!


Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)