A Brief History of the US Space Program Andrea Sandalic Spring 2005
Project Mercury Began October 7, 1958 – One year and three days after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 United States first program to send humans into space. Chimpanzees used to be on board previously. Sputnik 1 Six manned flights from 1961 to 1963 Chimpanzee, "Enos," flown in Mercury-Atlas 5 two-orbit mission.
“Project Mercury involved 19 unmanned and 6 manned flights, engaged the expertise of nearly two million people, and cost roughly 400 million dollars.” “Manned Missions: May 5, 1961 - Freedom 7 July 21, 1961 - Liberty Bell 7 Feb. 20, 1962 - Friendship 7 May 24, 1962 - Aurora 7 Oct. 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 May 15-16, 1963 - Faith 7” Mercury-Atlas 6: First manned orbital flight Mercury Space Capsule
Objectives Orbit a manned spacecraft around the Earth. Investigate man’s ability to function in space. Recover man and spacecraft safely. Mercury-Redstone 3: First manned suborbital space flight. John Glenn entering Friendship 7
Key personnel in Mercury control center at Cape Canaveral 1959. Project Mercury Astronauts, whose selection was announced on April 9, 1959, only six months after the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was formally established on October 1, 1958.
Gemini Program 1965- 1966 Gemini Launch
Objective Learn to fly a spacecraft by: Maneuvering it in orbit. Rendezvousing and docking with other vehicles Gemini B
Gemini 6 Views Gemini 7 Gemini 6 and Gemini 7 Rendezvous Gemini 5 Capsule Hoisted Onboard Recovery Ship Gemini VIII (March 1966) almost killed Neil Armstrong- the first man on the moon
Apollo Program 1963- 1972 “The Apollo program was designed to land humans on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth.”
“Six of the missions (Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17) achieved this goal.” “NASA Caption: "Interior of Apollo lunar module ascent stage cabin area looking aft. Ascent engine housing is in lower foreground and docking hatch is at the top." Photo filed 28 January 1969.” January 27, 1967- A fire swept through a Block One Apollo spacecraft, killing 3 astronauts.
“The Apollo program included eleven manned flights andculminated with man's first visit to another world with Apollo 11'striumphant Moon landing on June 20, 1969.” “Apollo 1 - Crew perishes in a launch pad fire. Apollo 7 - First manned Apollo flight. Apollo 8 - First manned flight to the Moon. Apollo 9 - First manned test of the Lunar Module. Apollo 10 - First manned flight of the Lunar Module around the Moon.”
“Apollo 11 - First manned landing on the Moon. 1969 Apollo 12 - First precise landing on the Moon. Apollo 13 - Aborted after oxygen tank explosion. Apollo 14 - America's first astronaut Alan Shepard walks on the Moon. Apollo 15 - First use of the Lunar Rover Vehicle. Apollo 16 - First landing in the lunar highlands. Apollo 17- Last manned flight to the Moon.” Aldrin - Apollo 11
References Title page- All images extracted from www.nasa.gov Slide 2 – Images: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4001/p3a.htm (chimpanzee) nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ database/MasterCatalog?sc... (Sputnik) Text: www.thespaceplace.com Slide 3 – Images: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4001/p3a.htm (rocket) grin.hq.nasa.gov/IMAGES/ SMALL/GPN-2000-001268.jpg(capsule) Text:http://www1.umn.edu/scitech/assign/space/mercury_missions .html Slide 4 – Images: history.nasa.gov/ SP-4001/p3a.htm (rocket) grin.hq.nasa.gov/IMAGES/ SMALL/GPN-2000-000652.jpg (capsule) Text: www.thespaceplace.com Slide 5 – Images: fcit.usf.edu/.../photos/ nasa/people/people19.htm (astronauts) http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4001/p3a.htm (control crew)
Slide 6 – Image: grin.hq.nasa.gov/IMAGES/ SMALL/GPN-2000-001269.jpg Slide 7 – Image: http://home.cwru.edu/~sjr16/advanced/20th_close_gemini.html Slide 8 – Image: http://www.astronautix.com/craftfam/gemini.htm Text: www.thespaceplace.com Slide 9 – Images: grin.hq.nasa.gov/IMAGES/ SMALL/GPN-2000-001343.jpg (ship) grin.hq.nasa.gov/ BROWSE/JSC_22.html (top left corner) aboutfacts.net/ufo/ UFO20/Gemini6And7.jpg (bottom left corner) Slide 10 – Image: http://www.hogya.com/apollo.html Slide 11 – Image:www.nasa.gov Text: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo.html Slide 12 – Image: www.ebay.com Text: http://www.hogya.com/apollo.html Slide 13 – Image: www.nasa.gov Text: http://www.hogya.com/apollo.html Song: “Leaving Port” by James Horner. Album “Titanic.”