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Learning. Classical Conditioning. The Fathers of Behaviorism (1 st half of 20 th century). What is learning?. Long-lasting change in behavior resulting from experience. (behavior as measurement of learning). Ivan Pavlov. 1849-1936 30+ years in research on Learning

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    1. Learning Classical Conditioning

    2. The Fathers of Behaviorism(1st half of 20th century)

    3. What is learning? • Long-lasting change in behavior resulting from experience. (behavior as measurement of learning)

    4. Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 30+ years in research on Learning Tripped upon theory of learning while studying digestion Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning

    5. Pavlov’s Experiment

    6. Classical Conditioning • Learning to associate a neutral stimuli with another stimuli that produces reflexive, involuntary responses. (Bell with food…)

    7. Key principles • Unconditioned stimulus: US • Something that elicits a natural, reflexive response (food) • Unconditioned response: (UR=unlearned!) • natural, involuntary response (salivation) • Neutral stimulus (NS) • NS (bell) paired with the US (food) to form association between US and CS • Conditioned Stimulus: (bell) • When CS elicits CR (NS becomes CS)

    8. Conditioning Processes • Acquisition • Learning: when animal responds to CS without US (bell = salivation) • Strength of conditioning affected by order and timing of US and CS • So, what’s the most effective method of conditioning? (In Pavlov’s experiment) • Ring bell, while it is still ringing, present food (Delayed conditioning) • What if you ring bell after the food? • Backward conditioning = ineffective

    9. Extinction • To unlearn a behavior (suppressed) • Qualifies when CS no longer elicits the CR • How is it done? • Present CS without US • (Bell without food)

    10. Spontaneous Recovery • Sudden reappearance of a CR upon presentation of CS (after extinction) • Renewal Effect: sudden reappearance of CR after extinction when return to environment where acquisition took place

    11. Generalization / Discrimination • Generalization • When a stimulus similar to CS will elicit a CR. (similar to bell sound- tapping glass with spoon) • Discrimination • To distinguish between various stimuli (between animals, objects. Sounds etc.)

    12. John Watson“Tabula Rasa” • 1913: Publication in Psychology Review • “behaviorist manifesto” • Psychology’s content should be behavior • Method should be objective rather than introspective • Its goal should be the “prediction of and control of behavior” rather than the fundamental understanding of mental events Age 30: chair of John Hopkins Psychology department 1915: president of American Psychological Association

    13. Little Albert Experiment (11 months) Aversive conditioning (conditioning for negative response) US = rat UR = liking of rat CS =gong behind boy CR= fear of rat Life examples? John Watson: Aversive Conditioning

    14. Second-order Conditioning • Second-Order, or higher order conditioning • Once a CS elicits a CR, the CS can be used (as a US) to condition a response to a new stimulus • Example: • Dog salivates to bell (first order conditioning) • Light is paired with bell (second-order) • Light = salivation

    15. Biology and Classical Conditioning • Animals / humans are biologically wired to make certain associations more easily than others • Examples: • Learned taste aversions (adaptive response) • Disgust reactions (Rozin and Colleagues) • Fudge: shaped in squares & dog feces • Bottle: labeled sucrose & cyanide • Classical conditioning, but biologically predisposed

    16. Garcia and Koelling’s Experiment • Biological Preparedness in Classical Conditioning • CS USLearned Response Loud noise shock fear Loud noise radiation (nausea) nothing Sweet water Shock nothing Sweet water radiation (nausea) avoid water What conclusions can be drawn from this? Results appear adaptive. (each animal has different biological predispositions to learning that enhance survival)

    17. Thus, significance? • Classical conditioning is a critical way in which all organisms learn to adapt to their environment • Classical Conditioning in today’s world? Provide an example for each of the following: • Drug addiction / quitting • politicians • Advertising • Fears / phobias

    18. Operant Conditioning • Learning based consequences… • Association made between consequences and one’s behavior • Thorndike’s Law of Effect: (Early pioneer of Operant Learning) • Positive consequences results in strong stimulus-response connection = increased behavior • Negative consequence results in weakened stimulus- response connection = decreased behavior • Instrumental Learning: Consequence shapes behaviors

    19. Thorndike’s Cat and Puzzle Box Study • Cat’s learn gradually, not by insight. • Suggests stimulus-response process

    20. Classical vs. Operant • Remember… • Classical = stimuli • Operant = consequences

    21. Introducing B.F. Skinner…. • “Cognitive science is the creationism of psychology.” • “External influences, not internal thoughts feelings, influence behavior.” • “Recognizing that behavior is shaped by its consequences is the first step in taking control of the environment and ensuring that it delivers consequences promoting desirable behavior.” • “The movement toward a better society demands giving up the belief in dignity.” (Dignity is an illusion..)

    22. The Skinner Box

    23. Skinner’s Reinforcement • Reinforcement : A consequence that increases likelihood of behavior TypesEffectsExamples? Positive R Add something pleasant Negative R Remove something unpleasant

    24. Skinner’s Punishment • Punishment: A consequence that decreases likelihood of behavior TypesEffectsExamples? Positive Punishment Adds something negative Negative Punishment Removes something pleasant (omission training)

    25. Application: Reinforcement or Punishment? • Indicate for the following which type of Reinforcement or Punishment applies. • Taking aspirin for a headache. • Water boarding to force a confession • Running home to get out of the cold. • Having your license revoked for speeding. • Spanking a child for a tantrum. • $25 for each A you make…. (Insane!)

    26. Learning by Operant Conditioning • Shaping: • Reinforcing the steps used to reach a desired behavior. (single behavior: Press bar for food) • Chaining: • Reinforcing a number of separate behaviors for a more complex activity. (Obstacle course)

    27. Operant Conditioning • The following terms can also be applied to Operant Conditioning. Explain an example for each using the Skinner Box. • Acquisition • Extinction • Spontaneous recovery • Generalization • Discrimination

    28. A Quick Review!!! • Brain defrost…… • Pavlov is to _________ , as Skinner is to _________ . • Who coined the phrase behaviorism? (Baby Albert and aversive conditioning…) • Pavlov’s classical conditioning involves natural, or uncontrolled responses (T-F) • Identify Skinner’s four major consequences of operant learning and give an example for each… • Classical conditioning is shaped by ________ , while operant is shaped by _________ .

    29. Types of Reinforcers • Primary Reinforcers • Natural reinforcers: Examples? • Food, water, rest (innately pleasing) • Secondary Reinforcers • Things we’ve learned to value : Examples? • Praise, treasure box, to play video games

    30. Money as a Reinforcer • Money = generalized reinforcer • Can be used for anything • Token Economy • Tokens as positive reinforcement • Cash in for other reinforcers • Sound familiar? • Schools, mental institutions, prisons

    31. Challenges of ParenthoodWhat’s the Best Consequence…? For each of the following, choose only one of Skinner’s 4 consequences and how you would specifically enforce it. • Your ten year old, in a fit of anger, accidentally breaks the living room window. • Your 11th grade teenager tells you she is going to a movie and heads to a party. • Your four year old kicks you in the shin. • Your middle school daughter makes straight A’s.

    32. Questions for Consideration… • Is spanking an advisable punishment for children? • To what extent should we reinforce our kids? For each of the following provide a specific reinforcement, if one is necessary. • Making good grades on your report card • Completing your chores all week Is buying a car for your 16 year old reinforcement?

    33. Biology and Operant Conditioning Reinforcers: Effects can Vary • Effect of reinforcer can vary depending on animal, its instincts, and situation • Instinctive Drift: ignore rewards to follow natural (instinctive) behavior • Premack Principle • If two activities- the one preferred can be used to reinforce the one not preferred. • Example? • Eat your lima beans = “may be excused”

    34. Reinforcement Schedules • Reinforcement Schedules = pattern of reinforcing behavior • Administered in 2 ways • Ratio = number of responses made • Interval= passage of time

    35. Reinforcement Schedules • 4 major reinforcement schedules • FR (Fixed ratio) = Reinforcement after set number of responses- FR-5 • VR (Variable ratio) = Reinforcement after varied number of responses (average number of responses set- VR-5) • FI (Fixed Interval) =Fixed amount of time set before reward for behavior- FI 3 • VI (variable interval) =varied amount of time before reward (average time set- VI-3)

    36. Learning and Extinction • FR and FI = faster acquisition (learning), but faster extinction • VR and VI: Slower learning but slower extinction • Which of these four yields the highest rate of response? • FR • Why slower extinction with VR and VI? • Noticing a break in pattern is more difficult • “always that chance” • Activity: Identifying reinforcement schedules..

    37. Learning with Punishment • Escape learning • To terminate an aversive stimulus: Example? • To disrupt English class so as to “get out” • Avoidance learning • To avoid stimulus all together: Example? • Cut English class

    38. Pitfalls of Punishment… • According to behaviorists, what are the potential pitfalls of punishment? • Tells only what not to do, not what to do… • Creates anxiety which interferes with learning • Only suppresses behavior, doesn’t eliminate (discrimination) • Physical punishment = aggressive behavior (correlation, not causation)

    39. Classical v. Operant • Compare and contrast Classical and Operant Conditioning. Similarities • Both forms of associative learning • Both involve acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination • Both influenced by biology, cognition Differences • ClassicalOperant Response = automatic Response = voluntary Reward independent of action Reward contingent on action learning = autonomic response learning = voluntary behavior

    40. Behavioral Legacy • Pavlov: • Classical Conditioning- how all organisms learn to adapt to their environment • Practical applications for fears, phobias, etc. • Skinner • Definitive insight into learned behavior • Practical applications abound • Both asserted that learning occurs without thought (cognition) • Focused only on observable behavior

    41. Cognitive Learning • How could cognitive theorists argue that cognition is influential in both classical and operant conditioning? • Classical: CS triggers anticipation of US • Operant: awareness that responses = consequences and thus act to maximize reinforcement (minimize punishment)

    42. Cognitive Learning • Observational Learning • AKA Modeling • Observation / imitation • Mirror neurons (frontal lobe / neural basis for observational learning) • Albert Banduras: Bobo Doll Experiment • Social learning theory (species specific) • Prosocial behavior (role modeling) • Antisocial behavior (Bobo Doll Experiment) • Implications for television and youth? • By age 75 in U.S. 9 yrs of T.V.! (9 of 10 homes) • World Pop Culture (billion tv sets) • MTV 17 languages / CNN 150 countries

    43. Cognitive Learning • Latent Learning (“hidden”) • Learning that is not directly observable • Tolman’s Rat maze study • Group 1: reward every time reached goal • Group 2: no reward when reached goal • Group 3: no reward 1st 10 days, reward on 11th • Finding: Latent learning (3rd group had learned cognitive map in 1st trial, but didn’t show it until reward) • Thus learning takes place without reinforcement

    44. Cognitive Learning • Insight Learning(“aha!”) • Sudden grasp of problem • Wolfgang Kohler: Chimpanzees • sudden insight, not gradual strengthening of S-R association

    45. Cognitive Learning • Abstract Learning • Higher order thinking (inferring relationships, complex problem solving)