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France, Russia, Prussia, Austria 1500s-1700s. Adair Doran. France - advantages. Location Resources Leaders. France. Huguenots - French Calvinists 40% of nobility many merchants and middle class problems for the king. Henry II (1547-1559). Good ruler uniting country

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France, Russia, Prussia, Austria 1500s-1700s


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    1. France, Russia, Prussia, Austria 1500s-1700s Adair Doran

    2. France - advantages • Location • Resources • Leaders

    3. France • Huguenots - French Calvinists • 40% of nobility • many merchants and middle class • problems for the king

    4. Henry II (1547-1559) • Good ruler • uniting country • died in a freak accident

    5. Catherine de Medici • Henry’s wife, becomes regent • Italian not well liked • Charles IX • Henry III • Religious wars 1661-1689

    6. Henry III • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre • 1572 • War of the Three Henry’s • Henry of Guise • Henry III • Henry of Navarre

    7. Henry IV (1589 - 1610) • Of Navarre • Huguenot, becomes king in 1589 • “Paris is well worth a mass” • converted to gain support of Paris

    8. Henry IV • Duke of Sully - Huguenot • Friend and chief advisor • restored order • rebuilt roads • reformed tax collection • encourged manufacturing

    9. Henry IV

    10. Henry IV • Edict of Nantes, 1598 • gave religious toleration to Huguenots • had same rights as Catholics • allowed 100 walled (fortified) Huguenot towns with own soldiers

    11. Louis XIII (1610 - 1643) • Mother, Marie de Medici, regent • staunch catholic, removed Sully • Cardinal Richelieu (1624-1642) • selected by Louis to rule for him • believed in Machiavelli’s doctrine • “The good of the state is supreme.”

    12. Louis XIII

    13. Louis XIII Cardinal Richelieu • Had two goals • Make the king supreme in France • Make France supreme in Europe • HOW? • Had two obstacles • Huguenots and Nobility

    14. Cardinal Richelieu • TO reduce to Huguenots’ power- • ordered to tear down walls of fortified towns • if refused, were beseiged and destroyed

    15. RICHELIEU • To reduce the power of the nobles- • ordered to tear down fortified castles • set up spy system • appointed local administrators from the middle class • outlawed dueling • encouraged overseas trading

    16. Richelieu • To make France supreme in Europe became involved in the 30 Years War (1618 - 1648)

    17. Thirty Years War (1618-1648) • Wars of religion, fought in Germany • resulted in rise of France and decline of Hapsburg Germany and Spain • devastated German states

    18. Thirty Years War • France helped ___ side • Treaty of Westphalia, 1648 • victory for protestants • ended dream of a united Christian Europe • spirit of toleration developing

    19. Louis XIV (1643 - 1715) • Becomes king at 5 • mother, Anne of Austria, regent • Cardinal Mazarin (1642 - 1661) • trained by Richelieu in gov’t and diplomacy • achieved Richelieu’s goals

    20. Mazarin has trouble with nobles • Fronde • Resent increasing powers of the French monarchy • Develop idea of divine right monarchy • Bishop Bousset and Jean Bodin

    21. Divine Right • It is the distinguishing mark of the sovereign that he cannot in any way be subject to the commands of another, for it is he who makes law for the subject, abrogates laws already made, and amends absolute laws.

    22. Louis XIV • ABSOLUTE MONARCH • “none his equal” • Symbol the sun • divine right monarch • “L’etat c’est moi”

    23. Louis XIV • Lived too long • outstanding ruler • excellent advisors

    24. Louisin bed-room

    25. Louis XIV - advisors • Colbert - financial advisor • made economy prosper • mercantilist • built up French industry and trade • cut down corruption in tax collection • encouraged overseas colonization, trade, shipbuilding, roads, canals

    26. Louis XIV • Louvois - military advisor • reorganized army, promoted by merit, improved equipment • harsh discipline (martinet) • created quartermaster’s dept • size increased from 100,000 to 400,000

    27. Louis XIV - problems • 1685 - Revocation of the Edict of Nantes • Numerous wars - desire for grandeur, power, and territory • Versailles

    28. Louis XIV’s wars • The War of the Devolution (1667-1668) • Invasion of the Dutch Rhineland (1672-1678) • Seizure of the Dutch Rhineland and attempt to annex Alsace-Lorraine (1681-1697) • League of Ausgburg • The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713) • Grand Alliance

    29. War of the Spanish Succession • Treaty of Utrecht, 1713-1714 • restored the balance of power • Spanish king (Philip V) renounced any claim to French throne, Spanish empire partitioned • Hapsburg Empire acquired Spanish Netherlands (now called Austrian Netherlands) and land in Italy • England took Gibralter, Minorca, Newfoundland, Hudson’s Bay, and Nova Scotia • France retained Alsace and city of Strasbourg

    30. Versailles • 12 miles outside of Paris • Used to dominate nobility and Paris mob • 10,000 noblemen and officials live there • 60% royal tax revenue for maintenence

    31. Louis XIII’s Versailles

    32. Louis XIVBedroom

    33. View from bedroom window

    34. Hall of Mirrors

    35. Louis XIV • Balance of power • Leader in fields of art, literature, culture • France has Golden Age of culture and cultural influences • French became “universal tongue” • French literature, art and style dominate (dress, architecture, furniture)

    36. Russia - Peter the Great 1682 - 1725 • 6’9” energetic, excellent mind • 3 objectives • Europeanize his people • make his power absolute • obtain a “window on the sea” • learned from the West to modernize his army and navy

    37. Peter the Great • Forced westernization • New capital - St Petersburg • fought Great Northern War (1701-1721) • Reorganized and centralized government -- controlled church and military

    38. Peter the Great • Modernizes Russia • Mainly army and navy and upper classes • Burdens masses • “I hope God will forgive me my many sins because of the good I have tried to do for my people.”

    39. RussiaCatherine the Great 1729 - 1796 • married Peter III (Became tsar Jan 1762, died July 1762) • German, Russified herself • an “Enlightened Despot”

    40. Catherine the Great Enlightened Despot • Created the Imperial Academy of the Arts • First college of pharmacy • imported foreign physicians • created a constitution • reformed the law code

    41. Catherine the Great • discussed liberty and equality • annexed large parts of Poland • took part of Turkey-”warm water port”

    42. Central Europe - Power vacuum • Weak empires ruled central Europe • Poland - large gap btw rich & poor • Ottoman Empire - corrupt, poor army • Holy Roman Empire - name only, 300 states

    43. Austria • Most powerful state in the HRE - Hapsburg • controlled a diverse empire • Charles VI (1711 - 1740) • Pragmatic Sanction • all countries recognized Charles daughter as heir, Maria Theresa “guaranteed” peaceful reign

    44. Prussia • Hohenzollern - ruling family of Prussia • Frederick William - the Great Elector • developed strong standing army

    45. Prussia • Frederick I - first to call himself king • Frederick William I (1713 - 1740) • harsh, unbalanced, loved his army • doubled size of army • promoted officers from landowning nobility - junkers

    46. Prussia • Frederick II (1740 - 1786) • extended borders • religious toleration promoted • public education established • improved roads, canals • reformed justice • encouraged immigration

    47. Prussia - Frederick II • Ran country like an army • Fought War of the Austrian Succession, 1740 • Seven Years War (1756 - 1763)

    48. Poland • King elected by nobility • usually a foriegner • no power, no income, no army, no courts, no officials • liberum veto • slowly annexed by Russia, Prussia, and Austria