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Classroom Management. Overview: Describe the importance of classroom management and its impact on academic learning time. Describe differences in the approach to classroom management from a behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic perspective.

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slide1

Classroom Management

Overview:

Describe the importance of classroom management and its impact on academic learning time.

Describe differences in the approach to classroom management from a behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic perspective.

Name and describe three general categories of the events of classroom management from a behavioral perspective, giving examples of specific teacher activities for each category.

slide2

Classroom Management

Primary purpose is to gain control of the classroom

Good classroom management results in high levels of student engaged time

slide3

Brophy (1983) states there are 3 general principles for good classroom management:

Brophy, J. (1983). Effective classroom management. The School Administrator, 40(7), 33-36.

Classroom Management

1. Willingness of the teacher to accept responsibility for classroom control

2. Long-term, solution-oriented approaches to problems (rather than short-term, desist/ control responses

slide4

Brophy (1983) states there are 3 general principles for good classroom management:

Brophy, J. (1983). Effective classroom management. The School Administrator, 40(7), 33-36.

Classroom Management

3. Check to see if symptomatic behavior is caused by underlying personal problems (impulsivity, lack of awareness, home problems, etc.)

slide5

Classroom Management

Brophy (1983) also cites theoretical orientations to classroom management:

  • Social Cognitive Theory
  • Behavioristic Approach
slide6

Social Cognitive Theory

  • Insight (cognitive) -- teacher spends time with problem students individually, getting to know them personally, attempting to instruct and inform them
  • Note that this is aligned with our text’s description of Social Cognitive Theory
slide7

Behavioristic Approach

  • teacher offers incentives, negotiates contracts, calls attention to and reinforces desirable behavior
  • Derived from principles of behavioral psychology, especially the application of consequences to modify behavior.
functions of behavior
Functions of Behavior
  • Every behavior has a function
  • Four primary reasons for disruptive behavior in the classroom - The Adlerian Goals of Misbehavior
    • Power
    • Revenge
    • Attention
    • Want to be left alone (i.e., disinterest or feelings of inadequacy)
functions of behavior1
Functions of Behavior
  • Many misbehaviors exhibited by students are responses to a behavior exhibited by the teacher
  • Do not tolerate undesirable behaviors no matter what the excuse
  • Understanding why a person exhibits a behavior is no reason to tolerate it
  • Understanding the function of a behavior will help in knowing how to deal with that behavior
dealing with off task behaviors
Dealing with off-task behaviors
  • Remain focused and calm; organize thoughts
  • Either respond decisively or ignore it all together
  • Distinguish between off-task behaviors and off-task behavior patterns
  • Control the time and place for dealing with off-task behavior
  • Provide students with dignified ways to terminate off-task behaviors
dealing with off task behaviors1
Dealing with off-task behaviors
  • Avoid playing detective
  • Utilize alternative lesson plans
  • Utilize the help of colleagues
  • Utilize the help of guardians
  • DO NOT USE CORPORAL PUNISHMENT
    • A form of contrived punishment in which physical pain or discomfort is intentionally inflicted upon an individual for the purpose of trying to get that individual to be sorry he or she displayed a particular behavior
modifying off task behavior patterns
Modifying off-task behavior patterns
  • Use the principle of “Extinction”
    • Whenever the positive rein forcers for a person’s voluntary behavior pattern are removed or cease to exist, the person will begin to discontinue that behavior
  • Specify the exact behavior pattern to extinguish
  • Identify positive reinforcers for the behavior
  • Plan to eliminate positive reinforcement
  • Establish a realistic time schedule
  • Implement the plan
  • Evaluate the effectiveness by observing behavior
modifying off task behavior patterns1
Modifying off-task behavior patterns
  • Use the principle of “Shaping”
    • Reinforce behaviors that are similar to the behavior to be learned
    • Subsequent actions that are more like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are reinforced
    • Subsequent actions that are less like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are not positively reinforced
attention seeking behavior
Attention Seeking Behavior
  • Attention-seeking students prefer being punished, admonished, or criticized to being ignored
  • Give attention to this student when he or she is on-task and cooperating
  • “Catch them being good!” – and let them know you caught them
power seeking behavior
Power Seeking Behavior
  • Power-seeking students attempt to provoke teachers into a struggle of wills
  • In most cases, the teacher should direct attention to other members of the class
slide16

Behavioristic Approach

There are 3 major categories of actions to take in establishing a behaviorally-oriented classroom management program:

  • Structuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities
  • Monitor Student Behavior
  • Reinforce Positive Behavior/Redirect Inappropriate Behavior
slide17

Behavioristic Approach

Structuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities

  • Establish rules and procedures early
slide18

Establishing Rules

General Recommendations

  • Select 4 or 5 rules that you will use to set guidelines and limits for behavior in your classroom.
  • State the rules in terms of positive expectations of behavior you want to see. Be careful about stating rules in the form of "Don't.”
slide19

Establishing Rules

General Recommendations

  • Think about specific examples of behavior that would demonstrate each rule.
  • Post the rules in your classroom.
  • Teach the rules just as you would academic content using the discussed previously.
slide20

Establishing Rules

Sample Rules For The Elementary Level

  • Be polite and helpful.
  • Take care of your school.
  • Behave in the cafeteria.
  • Do not hit, shove or hurt others.
  • Keep the bathroom clean.
slide21

Establishing Rules

Sample Rules For The Secondary Level

  • Bring all needed materials to class.
  • Be in your seat and ready to work when the bell rings.
  • Obtain permission before speaking or leaving your seat.
  • Respect and be polite to all people.
  • Respect other people's property.
slide22

Structuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities

  • Establish rules and procedures early

Behavioristic Approach

  • Establish consequences
  • 1. reinforcers (Premack principle)
  • 2. punishers
slide23

Establishing Consequences

Consequences are environmental stimuli that increase or decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again.

We want to establish consequences that will either reinforce or redirect behavior.

Rewards and punishers should be selected that match the significance or meaningfulness of the exhibited action.

slide24

Establishing Consequences

Level of Significance

Reward

Penalty

  • Smile
  • Compliment
  • Cheery note on assignment
  • Small amount of tokens traded for small reward
  • Eye contact
  • Have student state rule broken
  • Change seats
  • Isolation
  • Confiscation of forbidden objects or notes

Mild

slide25

Establishing Consequences

Level of Significance

Reward

Penalty

  • Posting good work
  • Positive note to parents
  • Special privileges
  • Staying after school
  • Loss of privileges
  • Call to parents
  • Isolation in special room

Moderate

slide26

Establishing Consequences

Level of Significance

Reward

Penalty

  • Field trips
  • Recognition at award's banquet
  • Write up in newspaper
  • Trip to principal's office
  • Loss of special class event (e.g., field trip)

Extensive

slide27

Establishing Consequences

The most important aspect of delivering consequences is the consistency of delivery.

Especially in terms of punishers, any inconsistency might actually increase rather than decrease the probability that the behavior will occur again.

slide28

Behavioristic Approach

Structuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities

  • State expectations clearly
  • Focus on positive expectations
  • Practice "positive" behavior
  • Establish group cohesiveness and responsibility
  • Establish cues
  • Model appropriate behavior
slide29

Behavioristic Approach

Monitor Student Behavior

  • Physical layout: ability to see all students
  • Teacher movement: move around the room
  • Group focus: keep students involved
  • Overlapping: ability to supervise several activities at once
slide30

Behavioristic Approach

Monitor Student Behavior

  • Withitness: communicate to students you are aware of what's happening
  • Pacing/movement management: keep lessons and students moving
slide31

Behavioristic Approach

Reinforce Positive Behavior/ Redirect Inappropriate Behavior

  • Anticipate occurrence of positive and inappropriate behavior
  • Hold students accountable
  • Provide specific feedback regarding behavior and expectations
  • Focus on positive behavior; teacher attention to inappropriate behavior can be reinforcing
slide32

Behavioristic Approach

Reinforce Positive Behavior/ Redirect Inappropriate Behavior

  • Effective praise will:

1. be contingent on display of positive behavior

2. specify clearly the behaviors being reinforced

  • 3. be believable by the student
slide33

Behavioristic Approach

Reinforce Positive Behavior/ Redirect Inappropriate Behavior

  • Methods of coping with inappropriate behavior:
  • 1. Negative reinforcement
  • 2. Satiation
  • 3. Punishment
slide34

Behavioristic Approach

While there are viable alternatives to the behavioristic approach to classroom management, it is clearly the most often used in public schools today.

Remember that the long-term goal of any classroom management program is self-management.

school policies

School Policies

How to stay out of trouble

be familiar with school policies from the start
Be familiar with school policies from the start!

Policies relating directly to students:

  • Attendance/Tardy Policy
  • Academic/Grading Policies
  • Telephone use (school phones, cell, pagers)
  • Student Dress and Grooming Policies
  • Safe School Policies
    • Weapons, fighting, intimidation, verbal abuse, etc.
  • Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Policies
  • Sexual Harassment Policy
policies you ll need to be aware of as a teacher
Policies you’ll need to be aware of as a teacher
  • Internet/Email use policies
  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) Policies
  • Policies regarding the reporting of abuse, neglect, suicide threats, etc.
  • Emergency procedures
    • Fire, earthquake, bomb threat, intruder, etc.
  • Field Trip policies
  • Accident reporting procedures
  • Reporting academic progress
  • Purchasing guidelines
  • Substitute teachers
    • Requests for, planning, etc.
  • Use of videos, movies, and instructional materials