Scarce resources:. Making production decisions when resources are tight. Choosing among products. Setting production schedules. Agenda. Reichard Maschinen GmbH written analysis Contribution approach - recap A more in-depth look at scarce resource decisions
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Scarce resources: Making production decisions when resources are tight. Choosing among products. Setting production schedules
Agenda • Reichard Maschinen GmbH written analysis • Contribution approach - recap • A more in-depth look at scarce resource decisions • Group work: Information Technology, Inc.
Reichard Maschinen GmbH Written Analysis • A 10% assignment. Maximum of five pages (not including exhibits). • Be sure you have downloaded the instructions for the write-up. • Cover memo - a page or two. • Analysis: computations and reasoning • Cover page, but no slick or stiff covers • Typed, double-spaced, 12-point font.
Reichard Maschinen Written Analysis Decisions 1. Whether or not to manufacture plastic rings. 2. Alternative schedules for launching plastic rings. 3. Strategic implications of ring decision and effect on demand in both short- and long-run.
Contribution approach: recap • Contribution margin vs. • Product line contribution • Division contribution • Segment contribution, etc. • Traceable fixed costs. • Differential vs. Relevant Costs. • Your textbook’s approach • No conceptual difference - same answers!
Scarce resources • What are resources? What is a bottleneck? • How do resources relate to capacity? • How do scarce resources change profit maximization problems? • What if there is more than one scarce resource?
Example 1 Suppose that Ajax Company produces products A and B, with the following selling prices and variable costs. A B Sales price per unit $25 $30 Variable cost per unit 1018 CM per unit $15 $12 CM ratio 60% 40% Machine time is limited. Product A takes 2 minutes.Product B takes 1 minute. Which should Ajax produce?
Example 2 Duo Company: Duo manufactures two products, Uno and Dos. Contribution margin data follow: Uno Dos Unit selling price $13.00 $31.00 Less: DM 7.00 5.00 DL 1.00 6.00 V O/H 1.25 7.50 Variable S&A .75.50 Unit contribution margin $3.00 $12.00
Example 2 Duo Company’s production process uses highly skilled labor, which is in short supply. The same employees work on both products and earn the same wage rate. Which of Duo Company’s products is more profitable? Explain. Uno: $3.00/$1.00 = $3 per DL$ Dos: $12.00/$6.00 = $2 per DL$
Example 2 Duo Company: Assume that the direct-labor rate is $24 per hour, and 10,000 labor hours are available per year. In addition, the company has a short supply of machine time. Only 8,000 hours are available each year. Uno requires 1 machine hour per unit, and Dos requires 2 machine hours per unit. Which product should Duo manufacture? The binding constraint is machine hrs. Uno = $3.00/1 hr. = $3.00 per machine hour Dos = $12.00/2 hrs. = $6.00 per machine hour
Tyler Tool Company Tyler Tool Company manufactures electric carpentry tools. The production department has met all production requirements for the current month and has an opportunity to produce additional units of product with its excess capacity. Unit selling prices and unit costs for three different drill models are as follows: Home Deluxe Pro Selling price $58 $65 $80 DM 16 20 19 DL ($10 / hr.) 10 15 20 Variable overhead 8 12 16 Fixed overhead 16 5 15
Tyler Tool Company Variable overhead is applied on the basis of DL$, while fixed overhead is applied on the basis of machine hours. There is sufficient demand for the additional production of any model in the product line. 1. If there are no constraints, which product should be produced? Home = $24 Deluxe = $18 Pro = $25 2. If labor is scarce, which product should be produced? Home = $24/DL hr. Deluxe = $12/DL hr. Pro = $12.50/DL hr.
University Hospital University Hospital has an outpatient surgery center that treats patients in three activity centers: (1) Surgery, (2) Phase I recovery, and (3) Phase II recovery. At the end of Phase II surgery, patients go home. Daily capacities and production levels are as follows: Surgery Phase I Phase II Daily capacity 40 30 60 Daily production 30 30 30 The hospital receives an average of $1,000 per surgery. The variable cost per surgery is $300. Demand is sufficient for 60. Surgeries not performed in the center go to regular surgery where variable costs are $700. Revenue is still $1,000.
University Hospital Here are some alternatives that management is considering: a. Continue performing 30 surgeries per day in the outpatient center and send 30 patients to regular surgery. b. Rebuild the recovery rooms so that some of the Phase II space could be used for Phase I recovery. This would cost $2,000 per day and would enable the outpatient center to perform 40 surgeries per day and send 20 to regular surgery. c. Expand the facilities of the outpatient center at a differential cost of $15,000 per day so it could perform 60 surgeries per day, and service all of them in Phase I and II recovery.
University Hospital Approach: Compute contribution from each alternative and compare. Continue performing 30 surgeries per day in the outpatient center and send 30 patients to regular surgery. Contribution: Revenues $60,000 Var. Costs 30,000 CM 30,000 Tr. FC -0- Oper. Profit $30,000
University Hospital Rebuild the recovery rooms so that some of the Phase II space could be used for Phase I recovery. This would cost $2,000 per day and would enable the outpatient center to perform 40 surgeries per day and send 20 to regular surgery. Contribution: Revenue $60,000 Var. costs 26,000 CM 34,000 Tr. FC 2,000 Oper. Profit $32,000
University Hospital Expand the facilities of the outpatient center at a differential cost of $15,000 per day so it could perform 60 surgeries per day, and service all of them in Phase I and II recovery. Contribution: Revenue $60,000 Var. Costs 18,000 CM 42,000 Tr. FC 15,000 Oper. Profit $27,000
Kickapoo Company The Motor Division of Kickapoo Company can increase its regular production of 900 units per week by 100 units per week by adding a second shift (400 man hours per day) - no more labor is available. However, the labor cost per unit will increase by one half. Other normal costs and revenues are as follows: Price per unit $2500 Direct material (1000) Direct labor (20 man hrs.) (500) (750) Variable overhead (200) Fixed overhead (600)* Gross margin per unit $ 200 *Allocated based on 1,200 units per week.
Kickapoo Company 1. What is the contribution margin on a unit manu-factured during a regular shift? Contribution margin = $200 + $600 = $800 2. What is the contribution margin on a unit manu- factured during the second shift? What’s gross margin? Contribution margin = $800 - $250 = $550 Gross margin = $200 - $250 = $(50)
Kickapoo Company: Motor Division Profit What is the total contribution of the additional 100 units per week? What is the contribution per year? Additional weekly contribution = 100 x $550 = $55,000 Contribution per year = 52 x $55,000 = $2,860,000 What is the gross margin of the additional 100units per week? What is total gross margin per week? Gross margin = 100 x $(50) = $(5000) Total gross margin before 900 x $200 = $180,000 Total gross margin after = $180,000 - $5,000 = $175,000
Kickapoo Company: Company Profits What is Kickapoo’s annual reported gross margin fromMotor’s product at normal production? Annual gross margin = 52 x $180,000 = $9,360,000 (1200 - 900) x 52 x $600 = (9,360,000)* Annual gross margin $ -0- *Cost of unused capacity
Kickapoo Company: Company Profit What is Kickapoo’s annual income from Motor’s productwith the 100 unit per week increase? 900 x $200 x 52 = $9,360,000 100 x $(50) x 52 = (260,000) (1200-900) x $600 x 52 = (6,240,000)* Change in gross profit $2,860,000 *Cost of unused capacity.
Kickapoo Company Suppose Motor Division must choose between manu- facturing its regular product or an altered version using its idle capacity. The cost and revenue information associated with the new product are as follows: Selling price $2800 Materials (600) Direct labor (36 man hours) (900) Variable overhead (200) Product contribution $1100 (1350) Which product should Motor Division manufacture?
Kickapoo Company New: $1100/36 hrs = $30.55 per hour $650/36 = $18.06 per hour Old: $800/20 = $40 per hour $550/20 = $27.50 per hour
Group work: Information Technology, Inc. Answer questions (1) and (2) in your groups andhand in your answers at the end of the hour. The best answer to part (2) requires a little creativethinking.