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Economic Activities. Irrigation in the Nile Valley. The Nile is Africa’s longest river at 6.671Km It flows to the northwards through the Sahara to the Mediterranean. Population distribution . The population of Egypt is 77 million

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irrigation in the nile valley
Irrigation in the Nile Valley
  • The Nile is Africa’s longest river at 6.671Km
  • It flows to the northwards through the Sahara to the Mediterranean
population distribution
Population distribution
  • The population of Egypt is 77 million
  • People live in the floodplain of the River Nile and in the delta region
annual flooding
Annual Flooding
  • Since ancient times, the Nile floodplain in Egypt was under water for several weeks every year
  • When the waters lowered, people grew crops on the damp soil.
  • The soil was fertilised by sediments carried by the waters
disadvantages of the dam
Disadvantages of the dam
  • Nile floodplain no longer floods annually; therefore sediments are stored at the bottom of Lake Nasser.
  • The canals that distribute the water contain a water snail that’s is harmful to humans
  • Much water is lost through evaporation in Lake Nasser
the aswan dam
The Aswan Dam
  • In 1975 the construction of the Aswan dam was completed.
  • The dam stores millions of tonnes of water in Lake Nasser and is released throughout the year through canals and pipelines along the Nile valley
future plans
Future plans
  • Scheme being developed to irrigate parts of the western desert to help people move from the overcrowded Nile Valley
exploitation of ireland s peat lands
Exploitation of Ireland’s peat lands
  • Raised bogs are found in shallow depression in the midland counties and can be up to 12 metres deep.
  • Blanket bogs are found in upland areas in the west of Ireland and are 3 to 4 metres deep.
  • Bogs can be worked out (exhausted) in 50 years
traditional methods of peat cutting
Traditional methods of peat cutting
  • Meitheals of workers cut turf using a sleán (a type of spade).
  • The sleán was an example of traditional technology.
  • Output was very slow
bord na m na
Bord na Móna
  • In 1946 Bord na Móna began to exploit Ireland’s bogs.
  • Modern machinery was used to exploit the resource.
  • Bogs were drained to allow water to run off allowing the peat to compress.
  • Machinery could then travel over the bogs
stages in the exploitation of a bog
Stages in the exploitation of a bog

i) The bog is drained

ii) The peat is harvested

iii) The peat is transported

iv) The peat is marketed

Machinery used

  • Ditcher Miller Harrow Ridger
peat products
Peat products
  • Horticultural products such as peat moss
  • Peat briquettes are sold to domestic consumers for home heating
  • Milled peat used in power stations to generate electricity


  • Bord na Móna is now returning some bogs to wetlands and preserving them in their natural state for future generations to enjoy.
sustainable exploitation
Sustainable exploitation
  • Fish is a renewable resource if it is sustainably managed
  • Fish stocks will eventually disappear when trawlers take more fish than are replaced by breeding
irelands continental shelf
Irelands continental shelf
  • The seas off the Irish coast form a continental shelf
  • This is an area of sea close to land in which large shoals of fish can thrive
the irish fishing industry
The Irish fishing industry
  • The Irish fishing industry was small in scale until recent decades (joining the EU in 1973)
  • Many fishermen used small trawlers with small nets or in currachs
eu membership
EU membership
  • EU membership meant that Ireland surrendered its control of its fisheries to Brussels
  • Ireland had to share its fisheries with other EU countries
  • Therefore greater amounts of fish were caught especially after Spain joined in 1985
endangered fish species
Endangered Fish species
  • Due to overfishing 25 of the 56 species of fish caught in Irish waters are in decline
  • These include cod, herring, hake, haddock and sole

Reasons for overfishing include the following

  • Too many well equipped trawlers are chasing too fish
  • Illegal fishing in Irish waters
  • Juvenile fish are being caught reducing the next years catch
  • The Irish conservation box is an area of 100,000 km2 used for spawning ground
  • Scientists check numbers of species of fish
  • Quotas are placed on the amount of fish caught
  • Number of trawlers is being reduced
  • Mesh size of nets is fixed so juvenile fish can escape
  • Fishing season for some species is shortened
  • Trawlers from outside EU are not allowed to fish in EU waters
farming is a system with many inputs processes and outputs
Farming is a system with many inputs, processes and outputs


fertilisers & machinery


milking cows & spreading fertilisers


milk & beef