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AusVELS Unpacking Primary Years Science Maria James 8 August 2013. Getting started. What is your most ‘burning’ question?. Education research: content. Research by Nuthall shows half (and perhaps more) of all material taught in any class is already known by the students.
Getting started What is your most ‘burning’ question?
Education research: content Research by Nuthall shows half (and perhaps more) of all material taught in any class is already known by the students. Nuthall (2005), The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: a personal journey?, inTeachers College Record, 107 (5), 902-903.
Assessment “ … the fundamental purpose of assessment is to establish where learners are in their learning at the time of assessment.” Masters G (2013), ‘Reforming Educational Assessment: Imperatives, principles and challenges’, Australian Education Review, 5-6
Prior knowledge How familiar are you with AusVELS Science? A Wouldn’t know where to find it B Looked at it quickly just before this session C Have spent some time reading it D Have spent some time working with it E Have spent significant time working with it
Science research: The ROSE Project The Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) project surveyed students from many countries. Findings include: • The more developed a country, the less positive the view of science by students • In the UK, 14-to 15-year-old students were surveyed: • 11% agreed with ‘I like school science better than other subjects’ • 8% agreed with ‘I would like to become a scientist’ • These figures are consistent with studies in Australia (for example, PISA results) Sjoberg S & Schreiner C (2005), How do learners in different countries relate to science and technology?, Asia Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 6 (2), 1-17.
A research base for Australian Curriculum: Science The framing paper for the Australian Curriculum: Science draws on two particular research reports which synthesise national and international research on school science education: • Australian School Science Education National Action Plan 2008-2012 (Goodrum & Rennie, 2007) • Re-imagining Science Education: Engaging students in science for Australia’s future (Tytler, 2007)
Research: Fensham A study of Beijing’s heads of the top 11 science research institutions to determine desirable qualities for their scientists, beyond knowledge, listed the following: Fensham, P. (2004). Engagement with science: An international issue that goes beyond knowledge. Paper presented at the SMEC Conference.
Urban legends and investigable questions ‘Science is a dynamic, forward-looking, collaborative human endeavour arising from our curiosity and interest.’ From the Shape of the Australian Curriculum: Science paper, May 2009. Hmm… an inquiry approach! Sport … music … updating Facebook profiles … latest diet fads … catching up with friends at the weekend … pets … Science? • Can the unaided human voice shatter glass? • Can diving underwater protect a person from gunfire? • Is grass still green at night?
Where can I find AusVELS? VCAA websites Curriculum website: http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/ Resources and support website: http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Pages/foundation10/curriculum/index.aspx
Age-relevant curriculum Curriculum focus • Foundation – Level 2: awareness of self and the local world • Level 3 – Level 6: recognising questions that can be investigated scientifically and investigating them • Level 7 – Level 10: explaining phenomena involving science and its applications.
Overarching ideas Six overarching ideas underpin the development of AusVELS Science • Patterns, order and organisation • Form and function • Stability and change • Scale and measurement • Matter and energy • Systems
Strands and sub-strands in AusVELS Science strands sub-strands
AusVELS Science Level 1: Screen shot http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Science/Curriculum/F-10#level=1
The Science as a Human Endeavour strand Two sub-strands Nature and development of science • How do scientific ideas develop? Use and influence of science • How is science used in work and leisure? • How do science and technology affect our environment and our lives? • What is the scope of science-related careers?
Revised standards: Foundation Foundation • By the end of the Foundation level, students describe the properties and behaviour of familiar objects. They suggest how the environment affects them and other living things. • Students share and record observations of familiar objects and events.
Revised standards: Level 1 and 2 Level 1 and 2 • By the end of Level 2, students describe the effects of interacting with materials and objects. They identify and describe a range of habitats and the different uses of materials and resources. They describe changes to objects, materials, living things and things in their local environment. They describe examples of how people use science in their daily lives. • Students pose questions about everyday phenomena and predict outcomes of investigations. They use informal measurements to make and compare observations. They follow instructions to record, sort and represent their observations and communicate their ideas to others.
Revised standards: Level 3 and 4 Level 3 and 4: Science Understanding (SU) and Science as a Human Endeavour (SHE) By the end of Level 4, students explain the effects of Earth’s rotation on its axis. They distinguish between temperature and heat and use examples to illustrate how heat is produced and transferred. They explain how heat is involved in changes of state between solid and liquid.They link the observable properties of materials to their use. They discuss how natural and human processes cause changes to Earth’s surface. They use contact and non-contact forces to describe interactions between objects. They describe structural features common to living things and describe relationships that assist the survival of living things. They explain how the key stages in the life cycle of a plant or animal relate to growth and species survival. They describe how they use science investigations to identify patterns and respond to questions. They describe situations where science understanding can influence their own and others’ actions.
Revised standards: Level 3 and 4 Level 3 and 4: Science Inquiry Skills (SIS) Students follow instructions to identify questions that they can investigate about familiar contexts and predict likely outcomes from these investigations. They discuss ways to conduct investigations and suggest why their methods were fair or not. They safely use equipment to make and record formal measurements and observations. They use provided tables and simple column graphs to organise and identify patterns in data. Students suggest explanations for observations and compare their findings with their predictions. They use diagrams and complete simple reports to communicate their methods and findings.
Revised standards: Level 5 and 6 Level 5 and 6: SU and SHE By the end of Level 6, students compare the properties and behaviours of solids, liquids and gases. They compare observable changes to materials and classify these changes as reversible or irreversible. They explain everyday phenomena associated with the absorption, reflection, refraction and dispersion of light. They compare different ways in which energy can be transformed from one form to another to generate electricity and evaluate their suitability for particular purposes.They construct electrical circuits and distinguish between open and closed circuits.They explain how natural events cause rapid change to Earth’s surface and describe the key features of our solar system. They analyse how structural and behavioural adaptations of living things enhance their survival, and predict and describe the effect of environmental changes on individual living things. Students explain how scientific knowledge develops from many people’s contributions and how scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions affect peoples’ lives.
Revised standards: Level 5 and 6 Level 5 and 6: SIS Students follow procedures to develop questions that they can investigate and design investigations into simple cause-and-effect relationships. When planning experimental methods, they identify variables to be changed and measured in fair tests. They make predictions based on general rules or previous experiences. They identify and manage potential safety risks. They make and record accurate observations as tables, diagrams or descriptions. They organise data into tables and graphs to identify and analyse patterns and relationships. They suggest where improvements to their experimental methods or research could improve the quality of their data. They refer to data when they report findings and communicate their ideas, methods and findings using a range of text types.
Inquiry-based curriculum The Australian Curriculum: Science emphasises inquiry-based teaching and learning Opportunities for student-led open inquiry should be provided within each phase of schooling Level F: explore and make observations Teacher -driven inquiry Semi - structured inquiry Student -driven inquiry Level 1-2: pose questions and make predictions … participate in different types of guided investigations to explore and answer questions Level 5-6: With guidance, select appropriate investigation methods to answer questions or solve problems … decide which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests Level 3-4: With guidance, identify questions in familiar contexts that can be investigated scientifically … suggest ways to plan and conduct investigations to find answers to questions
Scenarios for inquiry: Stinking fish Hundreds of stinking dead fish dumped at Portarlington jetty have angered local fishermen. Surfcoast Times, 2 September 2011 Newspaper articles can be edited so that students may be encouraged to generate questions/propose possible explanations/suggest methods of inquiry which involve collection of primary and secondary data/ differentiate between investigable and non-investigable questions.
Planning assessment: a sunscreen pill British scientists, inspired by samples of coral taken from the Great Barrier Reef, hope to produce a sunscreen in a pill that gives weeks of protection after working out how coral shields itself from the harmful ultraviolet rays in sunshine. The pill could be tested on people in 5 years.
Planning curriculum using a current issue: Cycling Victoria is the nation’s top bicycle state, with almost 1.1 million people riding their bikes each week The Age, 1 September 2011 Two-thirds of households have access to a bike About half of Victorian children under 10 ride each week About 40% of the population has ridden a bike in the past year In Victoria, 23% of males and 16% of females ride in a typical week
Linking science to literacy and numeracy What do I think? Risks? What does the community think? Bellarine, Great Ocean Road off-limits Wind farms banned The Bellarine Peninsula and Great Ocean Road have been made no-go zones for wind farms under extensive new planning rules. In addition, developments will be blocked if they are within 5km of a major regional centre or within 2km of an existing dwelling unless the owner gives written consent. The Surfcoast Times, 2 September 2011 How can I decide what to do? Who should decide? Benefits?
Planning assessment: ‘wicked problems’ • Socio-scientific investigations involve a complexity (and hence the term ‘wicked problem’) which often make them difficult to utilise in the classroom. However, if students are to be taught how evidence is developed and used in science in authentic settings, this issue requires addressing. • A solution: case studies may provide data from real situations, or simulated, to allow students to explore questions that might be posed, or which they generate themselves, through representations of the data and analysis. Example: A data bank was made electronically available to students from an Antarctic expedition concerning body weight, breeding patterns and mortality of mutton birds. Students could then pose questions, construct hypotheses, make predictions and construct data sets to explore these. Gott R, Duggan S & Roberts R(2000), The science investigation workshop (CD), Durham: University of Durham.
Contacts Maria James Curriculum Manager, Science Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: 9032 1722 AusVELS Unit Email: email@example.com