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I. A new style of expansion - extra-continental --insular/no more frontier -incorporating people and places --no longer the equal status as under the Northwest Ordinances --became imperial as other had before. Why the burst of new expansion at this time? --ideology
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--insular/no more frontier
-incorporating people and places
--no longer the equal status as
under the Northwest Ordinances
--became imperial as other
-White Man's Burden
-U.S.had always been expansionistic and had oppressed and displaced peoples on the basis of their being inferior
-expression of "manifest destiny" driven by a new generation of theorists (John Fisk's Anglo-Saxon superiority and United States of World; destined to expand beyond the U.S.
-Josiah Strong's idea of Anglo-Saxons being prepared by God to spread Christianity)
-was white man's burden to spread superior institutions to less advanced peoples of the world
-missionaries went to islands in far greater
Take up the White Man's burden. Send forth the best ye breed.Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' needTo wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wildYour new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.Take up the White Man's burden
In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of prideBy open speech and simple,An hundred times made plainTo seek another's profit,And work another's gain.
Take up the White Man's burden--The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of FamineAnd bid the sickness ceaseAnd when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch sloth and heathen FollyBring all your hopes to nought.Take up the White Man's burdenNo tawdry rule of kings,But toil of serf and sweeperThe tale of common things.The ports ye shall not enter,The roads ye shall not tread,Go mark them with your living,And mark them with your dead.
and an imperialist nation
--started selling the surplus
--more of the above required more
vessels and an expanded navy to defend them
-new ship designed for trade
-couldn't make it across the Pacific without refuel and repair
-thus the need for islands for that purpose
-also served as naval bases indefending sea trade lanes
-in 1895 a revolution broke out in Cuba and Yellow Press reports about concentration camp conditions
-February 9, 1898, published a stolen letter from the Spanish ambassador back to Spain, referring to McKinley as "weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd”
-American nationalism surged and war fever built
-part of a recent naval build-up, influenced in part by Mahan’s book
-the vessel was parked off Havana Harbor as an expression of American interests and to protect American citizens there
-on February 15th there was an explosion that killed 260 sailors
-the public blamed Spain, and "remember the Maine" became the battle cry
- it more likely was a steam boiler that had burst
-the war went so well, that there was a temptation to take more from Spain
-Spain was a declining empire, having wasted most of its colonial treasures for a few very wealthy Spaniards and not investing in industrialization like Britain, France, and the U.S.
-President McKinley sent admiral Dewey to Manila Bay and defeated the Spanish fleet with ease
-then the U.S. faced the question of what to do with the Philippines
-he thought he was promised independence but Americans forced him out of Manila
-he and his people grew tired of racism and American control
-turned his fight from one against Spain to one
against the U.S. and its occupation
-in 1899, he declared independence, and America found itself fighting a guerilla war until 1901
-5000 Americans and 200,000 Filipinos died before the war ended
-this became the first, but not last American war against guerillas
-France had attempted to construct a canal but never finished
-Panama had been a part of Columbia
-Roosevelt stirred up a revolution among those who wanted
-TR sent money and some troops to prevent Columbia from putting the rebellion down
-those opposed to annexation of the Philippines and colonization objections were based on a variety of concerns
-Samuel Gompers and labor feared an undercutting of unions
-Booker T. Washington felt that domestic social problems like racial issues should be dealt with first
-some southerners did not want more non- whites to deal with
-idealists like Mark Twain argued that colonization violated American principles of equality
-the Anti-Imperialist League led the way
-former president Grover Cleveland
-William Jennings Bryan