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Zoology 106 course. General Animal Biology. For Premedical Student. By Dr. Ashraf M. Ahmed. 1429-1430H. The Cell. Cellulae (Small room). The Organism’s Basic Unit of Structure and Function. متقدمة. بدائية. Types of cells. Eukaryotic. Prokaryotic. All other forms of life.

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zoology 106 course

Zoology 106 course

General Animal Biology

For Premedical Student

By Dr. Ashraf M. Ahmed

1429-1430H

slide2

The Cell

Cellulae (Small room)

The Organism’s Basic Unit of Structure and Function

متقدمة

بدائية

Types

of cells

Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic

All other forms of life

Micro-organisms

الكائنات الدقيقة

slide3

Cell Theory

1- All organisms are composed of one or more of cells.

2- Cell is the basic unit of life.

3- The new cell arises only from pre- existing cell.

1 prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity
1). Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity

Similaritiesأوجه التشابه

  • All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane غشاء بلازمى.
  • The semi-fluid substance المادة النصف سائلة within the cell is called “cytosol”, السيتوبلازم containing the cell organelles عِضيات الخلية.
  • All cells contain chromosomes which have genes in the form of DNA.
  • All cells have tiny organelles عضيات صغيرة called “Ribosomes” that make proteins.

Page 112

1 prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity1
1). Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity

Differencesأوجه الإختلاف

  • A major difference الفرق الأساسىbetween prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the location of chromosomesموضع الصبغيات.
    • In an eukaryotic cell, chromosomes are contained in a true nucleus (النواة ).
    • In a prokaryotic cell, the DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid(شـبه نواة) without a membrane ( بدون غـشاء) separating it from the rest of the cell.
    • In prokaryotic cell, DNA is a single strand (أحادى الشريط) or double strand (ثنائى الشريط) DNA. But in eukaryotic cell, DNA is double strand.

Page 112

slide6

(A)- Prokaryotes

الكائنات وحيدة الخلية ذات النواة البدائية

Micro-organisms الأحياء الدقيقة

Page 112, 526

slide7

Types of Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes

Bacteria

Archaea

- Exist in extreme environments البيئات القاسية (hot and salty)

- Exist in most environments

They are differing in some other structural, biochemical and physiological characteristics صفات

Page 526