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Zoology 106 course. General Animal Biology. For Premedical Student. By Dr. Ashraf M. Ahmed. 1429-1430H. The Cell. Cellulae (Small room). The Organism’s Basic Unit of Structure and Function. متقدمة. بدائية. Types of cells. Eukaryotic. Prokaryotic. All other forms of life.

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zoology 106 course

Zoology 106 course

General Animal Biology

For Premedical Student

By Dr. Ashraf M. Ahmed



The Cell

Cellulae (Small room)

The Organism’s Basic Unit of Structure and Function




of cells



All other forms of life


الكائنات الدقيقة


Cell Theory

1- All organisms are composed of one or more of cells.

2- Cell is the basic unit of life.

3- The new cell arises only from pre- existing cell.

1 prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity
1). Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity

Similaritiesأوجه التشابه

  • All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane غشاء بلازمى.
  • The semi-fluid substance المادة النصف سائلة within the cell is called “cytosol”, السيتوبلازم containing the cell organelles عِضيات الخلية.
  • All cells contain chromosomes which have genes in the form of DNA.
  • All cells have tiny organelles عضيات صغيرة called “Ribosomes” that make proteins.

Page 112

1 prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity1
1). Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity

Differencesأوجه الإختلاف

  • A major difference الفرق الأساسىbetween prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the location of chromosomesموضع الصبغيات.
    • In an eukaryotic cell, chromosomes are contained in a true nucleus (النواة ).
    • In a prokaryotic cell, the DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid(شـبه نواة) without a membrane ( بدون غـشاء) separating it from the rest of the cell.
    • In prokaryotic cell, DNA is a single strand (أحادى الشريط) or double strand (ثنائى الشريط) DNA. But in eukaryotic cell, DNA is double strand.

Page 112


(A)- Prokaryotes

الكائنات وحيدة الخلية ذات النواة البدائية

Micro-organisms الأحياء الدقيقة

Page 112, 526


Types of Prokaryotes




- Exist in extreme environments البيئات القاسية (hot and salty)

- Exist in most environments

They are differing in some other structural, biochemical and physiological characteristics صفات

Page 526