Chapter 7 (part 1). Cofactors. Cofactors. Cofactors are organic or inorganic molecules that are required for the activity of a certain conjugated enzymes Apoenzyme = enzyme (-) cofactor Holoenzyme = enzyme (+) cofactor Inorganic cofactors – essential ions Organic cofactors – coenzymes.
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Zinc protease (angiotensin converting enzyme)
- altered in rxn and regenerated to original structure in subsequent rxn
- disassociated from active site
- shuttle chemical groups among different enzyme rxns.
- remains bound to enzyme
- must return to original form
Both cosubstrates and prosthetic groups supply reactive groups not present on amino acid side chains
Ascorbic acid (C) not a coenzyme
Riboflavin (B2) FMN & FAD
Thiamin (B1) Thiamin-pyrophosphate
Pyridoxal (B6) Pyridoxal phosphate
Cobalamin (B12) adenosyl-and methylcobalamin
Vitamin A Retinal
Vitamin K Vitamin K
Pantothenate (B3) Coenzyme A
Ylid = a molecule with opposite charges on adjacent atoms