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Chapter 13. Work Team Development. Learning Objectives (part 1 of 2). Describe major OD quality and productivity interventions. Diagnose job design problems as part of OD program. Learning Objectives (part 2 of 2).

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Work Team Development

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

learning objectives part 1 of 2
Learning Objectives (part 1 of 2)
  • Describe major OD quality and productivity interventions.
  • Diagnose job design problems as part of OD program.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

learning objectives part 2 of 2
Learning Objectives (part 2 of 2)
  • Identify similarities and differences in job design, total quality management, and self-managed work teams.
  • Experience how an OD practitioner can help an organization to make productivity changes.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

chugach school district part 1 of 3
Chugach School District (part 1 of 3)

Baldrige Award given to U.S. organizations that have exemplary achievements in quality.

Chugach School District (CSD) received award for “whole child education.”

CSD emphasizes real-life learning situations.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

chugach school district part 2 of 3
Chugach School District (part 2 of 3)

Interested groups produced a core vision, shared values, and common performance goals.

Approach is individualized and student-centered.

Ten content areas and minimum graduation levels of mastery.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

chugach school district part 3 of 3
Chugach School District (part 3 of 3)

Highlights of 10 years of results include:

  • Student performance exceeds state and national norms.
  • More students are going on to college.
  • Faculty turnover rate went from 55 to 12 percent.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

continuous improvement processes
Continuous Improvement Processes

Message for organizations is clear: change or face elimination.

Trends in organizations are toward decrease in staff positions and decentralization.

Decision-making authority being pushed down to lowest levels of organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

changes in job design
Changes in Job Design

Design of jobs changing to accommodate demands of changing organizations.

Job design involves changing nature of jobs to improve workers’ satisfaction and productivity.

Line workers are planning, organizing, controlling, and leading.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

job enrichment theory
Job Enrichment Theory

Jobs should be redesigned to improve motivators related to a job.

Permit employees to attain more responsibility and achievement.

Increase achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and challenge for an employee.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

techniques to improve motivation factors of jobs part 1 of 2
Techniques to Improve Motivation Factors of Jobs: (part 1 of 2)

Arrange job into natural and complete units.

Add more difficult assignments.

Grant additional authority.

Employees become experts in areas.

Make information directly available.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

techniques to improve motivation factors of jobs part 2 of 2
Techniques to Improve Motivation Factors of Jobs: (part 2 of 2)

Remove controls while still holding employee accountable.

Extrinsic rewards are important but in themselves not motivators.

Improve both quality of work and rewards.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

job characteristics theory
Job Characteristics Theory

Theory attempts to develop objective measures of job characteristics.

Purpose is to directly affect employee attitudes and work behaviors.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

5 core job dimensions part 1 of 2
5 Core Job Dimensions: (part 1 of 2)
  • Skill variety - types of skills involved.
  • Task identity - job is identifiable piece of work.
  • Task significance - job impacts lives of others.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

5 core job dimensions part 2 of 2
5 Core Job Dimensions: (part 2 of 2)
  • Autonomy - job provides independence in scheduling work.
  • Job feedback - job obtains direct feedback.

Jobs that measure high on preceding dimensions produce increased outcomes.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

motivational potential based on formula
Motivational Potential Based on Formula

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

methods for improving jobs part 1 of 2
Methods for Improving Jobs(part 1 of 2)
  • Take fractionalized tasks and put together.
  • Form natural work units.
  • Allow employee to have direct contact with people using product or service.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

methods for improving jobs part 2 of 2
Methods for Improving Jobs(part 2 of 2)
  • Allow an employee to decide on work methods, budgets, and managing crises.
  • Establish feedback channels so employees can learn how they are performing.

Research on job design generally favorable and bear out validity of theories.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

our changing world when teams are 14 time zones apart part 1 of 3
Our Changing World: When Teams are 14 Time Zones Apart (part 1 of 3)

ValiCert is software company confronted with rising costs and competition from overseas.

Answer to problem was to move much of programming to India.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

our changing world part 2 of 3
Our Changing World (part 2 of 3)

ValiCert did not fully analyze their solution.

Problems included distance, inexperienced programmers, and no local manager.

Indian programmers resigned in frustration.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

our changing world part 3 of 3
Our Changing World (part 3 of 3)

ValiCert changed operations:

  • Indian programmers given entire projects.
  • Indian employees included in e-mails.
  • Position created to coordinate U.S. and Indian teams.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

total quality management tqm
Total Quality Management (TQM)

TQM is improving quality of organization’s product or service.

Organizational strategy committed to improving customer satisfaction.

Develops techniques to carefully manage output quality.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

characteristics of tqm part 1 of 2
Characteristics of TQM (part 1 of 2)

Organization wide.

Top support.

TQM in the culture.

Partnership with customers and suppliers.

Everyone in organization is customer.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

characteristics of tqm part 2 of 2
Characteristics of TQM (part 2 of 2)

Reduced cycle time.

Techniques range in scope.

Do it right the first time.

Organization values and respects everyone.

Designed to fit organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

malcolm baldrige national quality award
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

U.S. government response to encourage organizations to improve quality.

Award given annually from 2 to 5 organizations.

Criteria for award includes leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, human resource focus, and business results.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

tqm and od have similar values
TQM and OD Have Similar Values

TQM may not be part of OD program.

TQM as stand-alone program assumes problems and solutions relate to quality.

OD practitioner guards against being “quality expert.”

OD program may include TQM as one of techniques.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

self managed work teams
Self-Managed Work Teams

Autonomous group whose members decide how to handle their task.

Composed of people from different parts of organization with different skills.

May be permanent or temporary.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

characteristics of self managed work teams part 1 of 2
Characteristics of Self-Managed Work Teams (part 1 of 2)

Structure has few management levels.

Lack of status symbols.

Functional boundaries that member can identify.

Number of team members usually 5 to 15.

Team orders material and equipment.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

characteristics of self managed work teams part 2 of 2
Characteristics of Self-Managed Work Teams (part 2 of 2)

Team has sense of vision.

Partnership among members and management.

Diversity in members’ viewpoints.

Information openly shared.

Members knowledgeable in their areas.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

design of jobs
Design of Jobs

5 core job dimensions help in evaluating extent team is self-managed.

Organization structure modified to accommodate teams.

Team provides their own management.

Fewer support staff because team performs these jobs.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice w l gore s lattice system part 1 of 3
OD in Practice: W. L. Gore’s Lattice System (part 1 of 3)

Gore depends on continual innovation.

Gore uses the flat lattice system.

No chains of command.

Associates work on projects they believe most worthy of their time.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice part 2 of 3
OD in Practice (part 2 of 3)

Leaders emerge rather than being appointed.

Team does interviewing and hiring.

New associate assigned a sponsor.

Team successful because members are successful.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice part 3 of 3
OD in Practice (part 3 of 3)

Seniority and education do not count.

Compensation based on associates’ contribution to firm.

All associates offered stock option plan and profit sharing.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

teams usually have three levels of management
Teams Usually Have Three Levels of Management
  • Internal leader - Makes sure equipment and supplies are available.
  • Coordinator or external leader - Teacher and facilitator. Helps team obtain resources.
  • Upper management or support team - Does general planning, makes broad goals, and deals with outside parties.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

reward systems
Reward Systems

Based on team performance.

Rewards may be given to team and then team decides how to distribute them.

Teams small enough for individual’s performance to be reflected in paycheck and paycheck of everyone else on team.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

cautions in using self managed teams
Cautions in Using Self-Managed Teams

May not be appropriate to task, people, and context.

Managers and leaders may be vague about roles.

Lack of training can cause teams to fail.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

key words and concepts
Key Words and Concepts
  • Autonomy - degree to which job provides independence to the individual.
  • Baldridge Award - given to U.S. organizations that have achievements in quality.
  • Coordinator - energizer and serves as teacher and facilitator for team.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide37
Gain sharing - incentive system sometimes used in self-managed work teams.
  • Internal team leader - leader of team usually selected by members.
  • Job characteristics model - objective measures of job characteristics that can affect employee attitudes and work behaviors.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide38
Job design - the way a job is structured.
  • Job enrichment theory - method that builds in satisfaction to a job.
  • Job feedback - individual obtaining direct and clear information about performance.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide39
Motivating potential score (MPS) - measurement of job’s ability to produce increased personal and work outcomes.
  • Self-managed work teams - autonomous group whose members decide how to handle their task.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide40
Skill variety - degree job requires variety of activities that involve different skills and talents.
  • Support team - responsible for general planning, making broad goals, and dealing with outside parties.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide41
Task identity - requires completion of whole and identifiable piece of work.
  • Task significance - degree to which job has impact on lives of other people
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) - organization strategy to improve customer satisfaction by managing output quality.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

preparations for next chapter
Preparations for Next Chapter
  • Read Chapter 14.
  • Complete Step 1 of OD Skills Simulation 14.1.
  • Read and analyze Case: Tucker Knox Corporation.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition