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PALLETIZATION AND TIE-DOWN. What is a ULD?. The term ULD or Unit Load Device shall mean any type of aircraft container or pallet.

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what is a uld
What is a ULD?
  • The term ULD or Unit Load Device shall mean any type of aircraft container or pallet.
    • Aircraft units are ULDs which interface directly with the aircraft loading and restraint system and meet all restraint requirements without the use of supplementary equipment. As such they are an integral part of the aircraft
what is a uld3
What is a ULD?
  • The term ULD or Unit Load Device shall mean any type of aircraft container or pallet.
    • Non aircraft ULDs are those that do not meet the requirements mentioned and will not fit in the aircraft restraint system independently.
uld serviceability
ULD serviceability
  • When fitted in an aircraft, the ULD forms part of the aircraft structure and for this reason is a certified piece of equipment
  • Un serviceable ULDs should never find their way on to the aircraft and should therefore never be given out to agents or out-stations
  • A high amount of damage to ULDs is caused by poor or un-safe handling practices
uld serviceability question
ULD serviceability: question
  • You are about to build a ULD. Your colleagues seem to have different ideas about what you should do first. Which of their comments do you agree with?
    • Let’s start building right away
    • Let’s check the ULD is serviceable
    • No, all the ULDs I’ve built today have been fine
    • Let’s check they’re ok while we’re building – saves time
    • This ULD only arrived this morning, so it should be serviceable
uld serviceability the risks
ULD serviceability: the risks
  • If you build cargo into an unserviceable ULD, like the one below, you might find yourself responsible for causing:
    • An infringement of flight safety
    • Injury to personnel
    • Damage to aircraft
    • Damage to cargo
    • Dispatch delays
uld serviceability the risks12
ULD serviceability: the risks
  • To prevent any of these risks you must check for ULD serviceability. A ULD is considered to be unserviceable if it presents any of the following;
    • One missing or broken corner
    • A damaged seat track
    • More than one cut in the matrix of a net
    • Missing corner ropes
key areas to check on a pallet
Key areas to check on a pallet
  • Rivets must not be missing
  • The base sheet must not have holes, kinks or cracks (note; drainage holes are acceptable)
  • Pallet bow (dishing) must not exceed 2ins/5cm when unladen
  • The edge rail must be fully attached to the base plate.
  • Corners must be present and undamaged
key areas to check on a net assembly
Key areas to check on a net assembly
  • There must be no more than 1 damaged or missing hook per net quarter panel.
  • Corner ties must be present
  • The net matrix must have no more than 1 broken cord per quarter panel
  • No more than 1 missing or damaged ring-bolt per quarter panel
  • Should not have 2 damaged or missing ring-bolts at adjacent corners
  • The TSO (Technical Service Order) plate must be present
key areas to check on a container
Key areas to check on a container
  • The roof must have no holes and tears, it must be watertight
  • Frames must not be broken, cracked or disconnected
  • The base must have no holes (except drainage holes)
  • The TSO plate must be present and readable on all ULDs
  • All locks must be fully functional
  • Securing straps must be fully functional
key areas to check on straps
Key areas to check on straps.
  • Straps are considered serviceable when the damage is superficial and has no effect on strength and performance i.e.
    • Chips
    • Superficial wear and tear
    • Lightly soiled webbing
    • Minor corrosion on the metal’s surface
key areas to check on straps18
Key areas to check on straps.
  • Unacceptable damage to straps includes:
    • Webbing badly soiled with oil
    • Cuts longer than 2 mm
    • Frayed, furred or distorted webbing
    • Damaged stitch pattern and tread
    • Missing manufacturer’s data label
uld serviceability question19
ULD serviceability: question
  • You have identified an unserviceable ULD. Decide what you are going to do with it.
    • Commence the build
    • Attach a completed unserviceable label to the ULD
    • Register it as unserviceable, as per local procedures
    • Make a note of the damage on the build card
    • Put plastic tie on it to make it serviceable
    • Not use it
uld serviceability20
ULD serviceability:
  • Never use unserviceable ULDs. Always indicate that the ULD is damaged with an unserviceable label and follow your local procedures. This ensures it will not be used again until it is repaired.
  • It is important to understand that if you are not sure that the ULD is fully serviceable then, in the interest of safety, it must be considered unserviceable and must not be used.
load spreading
Load spreading:
  • Cargo often requires spreading during the build process. But what do spreaders actually do?
  • Distribute the weight of the cargo across a greater area
  • Make the cargo less heavy
  • Prevent too much cargo going on the aircraft.
load spreading22
Load spreading:
  • If a heavy piece of cargo is not spread correctly, it can damage the loading systems and/or the area of the aircraft that the ULD is in contact with. We use spreader boards to make sure that the weight of cargo is evenly distributed.
  • A spreader board is a length of timber that when placed beneath a package will distribute the weight over a large area
how does spreading work25
How does spreading work?
  • Box 1 which does not have spreaders, imposes a concentrated weight on a smaller contact area than Box 2 which has been correctly spread.
  • Spreading the weight of the cargo over a greater area reduces the risk of damage to the ULD and/or aircraft.
load spreading26
Load spreading:
  • Not all cargo needs spreading. It depends on the weight and the contact area of the individual piece and the aircraft’s floor intensity level.
  • The floor intensity level tells you how much weight you can place on a square foot of the aircraft’s hold floor, without posing a threat to the integrity of its structure.
load spreading27
Load spreading:
  • Effective use of spreaders enables you to:
    • Distribute the weight of the cargo across a greater area
    • Protect the aircraft’s structure
    • Prevent damage to in-plane systems and ground handling equipment.
  • REMEMBER, any package that exceeds the floor intensity level in a square foot, must be spread.
using spreaders
Using spreaders:
  • Which dimension should preferably be placed in the direction of travel?
    • The longest edge, which is the length
    • The shortest edge, which is the width
using spreaders final reminder
Using spreaders: (final reminder)
  • Ensure the overhang is equal at both ends
  • Note that the effective length is only 30 cm
  • Ensure that the distance between spreaders is no more than the width of a spreader.
If you do not spread the package correctly, you cause damage to both the ULD and the aircraft. It may also cause difficulties when loading into the aircraft.
restraining of cargo
Restraining of cargo:
  • Stationary objects will remain at rest and moving objects will continue to move in the same direction and with the same velocity unless an external force is applied to alter the condition.
  • It is for this very reason that restraining of cargo is key in aviation safety.
restraining of cargo32
Restraining of cargo:
  • Cargo can move in four different directions during transport
    • Backwards – at take off
    • Upwards – if there is turbulence and the plane loses altitude rapidly
    • Sideways – while making turns
    • Forwards – after landing when the brakes are applied.
restraining of cargo33
Restraining of cargo:
  • Unrestrained cargo can cause DAMAGE to:
    • Cargo
    • ULDs
    • Aircraft
    • Ground handling equipment
    • And it also increases the risk of injuring personnel
restraining of cargo34
Restraining of cargo:
  • Unrestrained cargo can cause DELAYS to aircraft departures and delivery to our customers. For example we may experience:
    • Difficulties with aircraft loading caused by load movement
    • Offload of cargo at aircraft side due to load shifting in transit
    • Cargo missing flight connection and not delivery as promised
restraining of cargo35
Restraining of cargo:
  • All items of cargo fall into 3 weight classes:
    • Class 1: items weighing 250kg or more. These must be individually restrained
    • Class 2: items weighing between 75kg and 250kg. These must be restrained if loaded in a container less than 75% volumetrically full
    • Class 3: items weighing 75kg or less. These should be restrained if the cargo could be unsafe, get damaged or caused damage
restraining of cargo36
Restraining of cargo:
  • As well as restraining items due to their weight, there are also other considerations.
    • Dangerous goods:

These must always be restrained:

      • To prevent movement during transportation and causing damage or being damaged AND
      • To maintain segregation
restraining of cargo37
Restraining of cargo:
  • As well as restraining items due to their weight, there are also other considerations.
    • Live animals:
      • Never load in enclosed ULDs (except for sealed boxes of fish)
      • Always individually restrain large boxes
      • Always allow adequate ventilation
      • Do not obstruct ventilation or watering points with straps
      • Do not stow on other packages or place other packages on top.
restraining of cargo38
Restraining of cargo:
  • As well as restraining items due to their weight, there are also other considerations.
    • Miscellaneous shapes:

Take extra care with items such as:

      • Cylindrical shapes e.g. drums, pipes, carpets, rolls of textiles
      • Human remains
      • Penetrating cargo
      • Out of gauge – BIG
      • Tall and unstable items with a low centre of gravity
      • Overhanging cargo
approved tie down materials
Approved tie-down materials:
  • Single stud ringbolts with minimum breaking strength of 900kg
  • Double stud ringbolts with minimum breaking strength of 2270kg
  • Ropes with a minimum breaking strength of 907kg
  • Straps with a minimum breaking strength of 2270kg (these must be used with double stud ringbolts)
restraining of cargo41
Restraining of cargo:
  • Which of the following statements is true?
    • Never restrain class 3 cargo
    • Shrink wrap is a method of restraint
    • Prioritize restraint in the direction of travel
    • Cargo weighing 3001 – 4000kg needs 7 straps.
building a uld
Building a ULD:
  • Before you start building make sure you:
    • Check the ULD serviceability
    • Know what aircraft type it is going into
    • Know the weight and height restrictions
  • To prepare for building plan to:
    • Place a polythene sheet on the base
    • Distribute packages over the base
    • Place heavy items on the base first
building a uld43
Building a ULD:
  • Always ensure that you:
    • Pack cargo tightly together leaving as few gaps as possible
    • Interlock packages so the whole load is stable
    • Maintain centre of gravity
    • Never load class 1 freight on top of classes 2 and 3
    • Obey orientation arrows and handling labels
building a uld44
Building a ULD:
  • Ensure safety of the ULD by:
    • Loading dangerous goods securely and correctly
    • Spreading and restraining all heavy, special, dense or unusually shaped items
    • Not loading damaged cargo
    • Maintaining a minimum clearance of 5cm from the cargo compartment’s ceiling and sidewalls.
    • Always take note of package labeling
building a uld45
Building a ULD:
  • After the ULD has been loaded, it must be weighed
    • Weighing must be done on calibrated weighing scales
    • Actual gross weight must be recorded on the ULD label
    • On completion of weighing, the ULD label must be signed the person responsible for the build
do s and don ts
Do’s and don’ts
  • Before use, always:
    • Ensure that all foreign matter is removed, giving special attention to the roof area when containers have been stowed in the open
    • Ensure that all wood sprinters, dirt etc. have been removed, paying special attention to the tie-down ring fitments
do s and don ts47
Do’s and don’ts
  • Never:
    • Forklift a full container, unless its properly supported and secured on a roller topped slave pallet
    • Move a loaded or partly loaded container unless both doors have been properly closed and latched
    • Use crowbars or similar devices to free a container that has jammed on a conveyor system
    • Drop containers from dollies on the ground
do s and don ts48
Do’s and don’ts
  • Always:
    • Store ULDs under cover whenever possible
    • Close and latch doors when stored in the open
  • Never:
    • Store a container on the ground unless it is on a suitable base support e.g. dolly
    • Stack one container on top of another
    • Place any load on a container’s roof
    • Load empty containers onto an aircraft with doors open
do s and don ts49
Do’s and don’ts
  • At completion of the build a competently trained person will need to confirm that the ULD has been built to the standard requirements.