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The People’s Crusade and the Rhineland Jews. HIST 3004 9/18/13. People’s Crusade. What is the People’s or Peasants’ Crusade?. Preaching the Crusade. Estimated 127,000 recruits ~10\% were knights (less than 1/4 th of all knights) ~40\% support staff Who are the other h alf?

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people s crusade
People’s Crusade
  • What is the People’s

or Peasants’ Crusade?

preaching the crusade
Preaching the Crusade
  • Estimated 127,000 recruits
  • ~10% were knights (less than 1/4th of all knights)
  • ~40% support staff
  • Who are the other

half?

  • Why did so many

sign up?

raising funds
Raising Funds
  • Knights would require 4-5 years income
  • Drought
  • Alienation of patrimony
  • The Church and

readily available cash

  • Influx of property into

the market depresses

values

  • Contested property rights
  • Why would you sell off

your patrimony?

beyond urban ii s call
Beyond Urban II’s Call
  • Peter the Hermit (ca. 1050-1115)
  • Attempted pilgrimage but turned back by Seljuqs
  • Possible originator of the Crusades?
  • Organize paupers into a spiritually pure crusade
  • Possible connections with the Second Coming of Christ
crusading fervor and the rhineland jews
Crusading Fervor and the Rhineland Jews
  • Count Emich of Flonheim
  • Visions of Jesus
  • Fulfill “end of times”

prophecies to become the

last world emperor

  • May 3, 1096 – Attacks on

Jewish community in Speyer

  • May 18 – Attacks in Worms

(800 killed)

  • May 25 – Battle against Ruthard

Bishop of Mainz (1,100 killed)

  • May 29 – Receive protection

money from Cologne

pogroms of 1096
Pogroms of 1096
  • Albert of Aachen
  • Why did these attacks

happen?

  • How were they justified by

the crusaders?

  • How could they defy the

Church while on crusade?

  • Solomon bar Samson
  • How did the Jewish

communities of the Rhineland

respond?

Illustration from mid-13th century

French Bible showing the

execution of Jews.

anti jewish crusading
Anti-Jewish Crusading
  • Folkmar and Gottschalk
  • Priests leading smaller

bands of crusaders

  • Attacking and extorting

Jewish communities

  • Massacred by the King

Coloman of Hungary for

pillaging

the end of the peasants crusade
The End of the “Peasants’ Crusade”
  • Walter Sans Avoir (lord of

Boissy-sans-Avoir)

  • Meets Italian pilgrims at

Constantinople

  • Aug. 1, 1096 – Peter the

Hermit arrives at

Constantinople

  • Aug. 6 – Ferried across the

Bosporus by Alexius I Comnenus

the end of the peasants crusade1
The End of the “Peasants’ Crusade”
  • Kibotos – rallying point
  • Rainaldo – leader of Italian and

German contingent

  • French raid Nicaea
  • Rainaldo moves base beyond

Nicaea

  • Sept. 29 – Turks

surround Italians and

Germans

  • Surrender and apostasy
the end of the peasants crusade2
The End of the “Peasants’ Crusade”
  • Oct. 21 – French crusaders seek vengeance
  • Ambushed by Turks
  • Peter the Hermit fine, was in Constantinople the whole time
  • What went wrong for the first wave of the First Crusade?
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