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CHAPTER 7 “ The Axial Skeleton” Review your A&P revealed discs Course objectives: Define and identify the bones of the axial skeleton. Axial Skelton. 80 total bones consists of the bones that form the long axis of the body including the: Skull ( total 28 with ear bones )

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CHAPTER 7“The Axial Skeleton”Review your A&P revealed discsCourse objectives:Define and identify the bones of the axial skeleton

axial skelton
Axial Skelton
  • 80 total bones
  • consists of the bones that form the long axis of the body including the:
    • Skull (total 28 with ear bones)
    • Vertebral column [(total 26) C7;T12; L5; S1; Co1]
    • Bony thorax [ribs and sternum (total 25)]
    • Hyoid bone (1)
skull bones review a p revealed discs animation of skull
Skull BonesReview A&P revealed discsanimation of skull
    • the skull has two major divisions: Cranium and Facial bones

Cranium – the 8 bones that enclose the brain.

-1 occipital, 1 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 sphenoid and 1 ethmoid.

  • These typical flat bones of the cranium are connected by a special kind of joint called a suture (Synarthroses).
  • Made up of 2 major divisions:
    • Calvarium (skull cap)
    • Base
  • Base contains three large depressions (fossa):
    • Anterior cranial fossa where the frontal lobes sit
    • Middle cranial fossa where the temporal lobes sit
    • Posterior cranial fossa where the cerebellum sits
sutures sutural bones
Sutures/Sutural Bones
  • Sutures (synarthroses) are immovable fibrous joints.

-all bones in the skull, except for the jaw, are united by sutures. The major sutures are:

-Coronal -Sagittal

-Squamous -Lamboid

Sutural bones- small bones that occur within the sutures, especially the lamboid suture. They are not present in all people.

facial bones
Facial bones
  • There are 14 bones that can be thought of as creating the face.
  • As part of this function they provide:

- protection for many sense organs,

-anchors for many muscles

-the openings for air and food to pass.

Facial Bones

2-maxillae; 2-palatine; 2-nasal; 2- zygomatic;

2-lacrimal; 2-inf nasal conchae; 1- vomer; and 1-mandible

sphenoid bone
Sphenoid bone

Looks like a Bat in flight. Greater and lesser wings; optic foramen; sella turcica, superior orbital fissure. Dorsal view.

sphenoid bone1
Sphenoid bone

Dorsal view

Anterior view

ethmoid bone
Ethmoid bone
  • Anterior to

sphenoid bone

forms anterior

base of skull

and nasal cavity.

  • Cribriform plate.
  • Crista gali
  • Perpendicular


foramen orbits
Foramen/ Orbits
  • Foramen: Special openings in bones where nerves, blood vessels enter into the bone cavity.

- Ex.: Foramen magnum, Supraorbital Infraorbital, Mental, Jugular, Olfactory, Mandibular

  • Orbits: Cone shaped bony cavities that hold the eyes, fat, occular muscles and tear glands.
meatus sinuses
Meatus/ Sinuses
  • Meatus: a canal or opening into bone

- Ex.: external auditory, internal acoustic

  • Sinus: cavities within bones filled with air.

-Ex.: frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and maxillary sinuses

cranial fossa
Cranial fossa

Fossa are depressions or cavities in the skull.

the fetal skull
The Fetal Skull
  • Sutures are called fontanels in fetus.
  • Fontanels

-Frontal (anterior)

-Occipital (posterior)

-Sphenoidal (anterior lateral)

-Mastoid (posterior lateral)