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Skills and Techniques- Badminton. KC 3- The development of skill and the refinement of technique Stages of Learning and Methods of Practice. Stages of Learning. There are 3 important stages when learning and developing skills: Preparation stage (Cognitive) Practice stage (Associative)

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skills and techniques badminton

Skills and Techniques- Badminton

KC 3- The development of skill and the refinement of technique

Stages of Learning and Methods of Practice

stages of learning
Stages of Learning

There are 3 important stages when learning and developing skills:

  • Preparation stage (Cognitive)
  • Practice stage (Associative)
  • Automatic stage (Autonomous)
preparation stage
Preparation Stage
  • Mental picture of the skill is required as actions/techniques not learned yet
  • Actions reduced to simple movements with limited sub-routines and limited movement (break the skill down)
  • Very little in the way of pressure or decision making which will be too much for the performer at this stage
  • Actions towards the closed skill end of skill classification with performer repeating the same action.
  • Practices are simple with shadow, self-feed, simple repetition being the main forms of practice
  • Many mistakes will be made, therefore, regular feedback is vital in establishing the correct technique (Be +ve)
  • If the result is correct, repeat the action. If the result is inaccurate or an error, change the action.
practice stage
Practice Stage
  • Action slightly more established although mistakes can still be made
  • Action is more fluent and rhythmical
  • Accuracy and consistency is greater although improvement in these areas is still required
  • More sub-routines and movements are added
  • More difficult repetition practices, combination practices and conditioned games can be used
  • Other shots, either shadow or actual, are added to increase the game like conditions
  • More pressure can be added in the form of smaller target areas, greater targets to achieve (e.g. 7 out of 10)
  • Feedback is still given but it can be towards the end of the practice drill
  • Performance can now be compared to a ‘model’ performance to highlight specific strengths and weaknesses
automatic stage
Automatic Stage
  • The action is now established and can be performed without thinking how to do it
  • Focus is now on where, when and what action to do
  • Focus is now on the decision making and playing under pressure
  • All external factors from a game situation are now part of practice and play
  • Performer is now more able to concentrate on tactics
  • Practices are now more game like (pressure) or are conditioned games
what methods of practice should be used at each stage of learning
What methods of practice should be used at each stage of learning?
  • Preparation Shadow/simple repetition practices
  • Practice More complex repetition/combination practices/Conditioned Games
  • Automatic Combination/Pressure/Passive/Semi Active/Active/Unopposed/Opposed/

Conditioned Games

why is it appropriate to use these methods of practice at the preparation stage of learning
Why is it appropriate to use these methods of practice at the preparation stage of learning?

Shadow

  • Shadowing the action without the shuttle means that I can concentrate on the action itself (the fluency and rhythm of the movement)
  • I can get the feel of the action without the extra pressure of actually completing the action
  • There are no external factors, therefore, with no hitting the action is “successful” every time
  • It is easy for the observer to look and give me feedback as the action is simple without the distraction of the actual result
  • I can practise movement patterns (either simple or more complex) without the complete action of hitting the shuttle
repetition
Repetition
  • Partner-feed (hand). This is a simple repetition practice as my partner feeds me the shuttle and I repeat the same action each time
  • If the action is correct, I repeat it. If the action is inaccurate or an error, I change the action to correct it
  • Very few external factors. Limited movement patterns
  • Concentration is on the action itself and the accuracy of the result
  • Partner-feed (serve). Simple to complex. Action is repeated to improve control, fluency and consistency
  • Feedback is given to ensure that the correct action is being learned at this stage of learning (Positive)
why is it appropriate to use these methods of practice at the practice stage of learning
Why is it appropriate to use these methods of practice at the practice stage of learning?

Repetition/Combination

  • Repetition drills can be simple or complex. I can adjust the difficulty depending on my level of ability
  • The objective of repetition drills is to allow me to establish the action learned at the preparation stage
  • The more I repeat the correct action, the more it will become automatic
  • Drills are ongoing repetition (e.g. OHC rally) with more movement than “repetition” practices at the previous stage (more complex)
  • Combination drills allow me to add more shots to make the practice more game like. These shots can initially be introduced as a shadow movement and then the full action can be incorporated as I become more confident
  • I can easily set targets for each practice allowing me to monitor if my performance is improving
why is it appropriate to use these methods of practice at the automatic stage of learning
Why is it appropriate to use these methods of practice at the automatic stage of learning?

Passive/Semi active/Active or Opposed/Unopposed

  • Somewhere between associative and autonomous. The technical action has been established and external factors like decision making and playing under pressure are introduced in a gradual manner.
  • Defence/opposition is co-operative at first and as the performer gets used to the options available, the practices move from unopposed to opposed or from passive to semi active to active. This allows for gradual progression to take the technical action into game-like conditions.
game like practices pressure drills
Game-like practices (pressure drills)
  • Appropriate to the automatic stage as the technical action is practised under game-like conditions e.g. decision making, pressure etc. but has an element of competition in the practice.
  • Motivation influence of competition while still practising the specific technical action
conditioned games
Conditioned Games
  • Playing in actual games but setting specific conditions designed to bring about an improvement in the technical action
  • Promotes the improvement of the action whilst introducing all the elements experienced in a game
homework
Homework
  • Complete Homework tasks 2 and 3 based on Stages of Learning and Methods of Practice