Voyages of Discovery Chapter 16.1
Foundations of Exploration • During the Renaissance, a spirit of discovery and innovation had been awakened in Europe. • Europeans set sail on voyages of discovery to find new lands or new routes to places already known. • This period is sometimes called the Age of Exploration.
GOLD • Age of exploration caused by people and countries that wanted to get rich. • How? • Trade • Spices, Silk, Perfume and Jade • From China and India • Trade controlled by Italian merchants that charged high prices to Europeans.
Explorers wanted to find new and faster routes to India and China to control the trade. • Whoever controls the trade…gets RICH! • The faster you get there and back, the more money you make.
Advances in Technology • Compass • From the Chinese • Let sailors know what direction was North • Astrolabe • From the Muslims • Allowed navigators to calculate their location based on the position of the sun and stars in relation to the horizon.
Advances in Technology • Shipbuilding • Deep-draft ships • Hold more cargo • Carry more supplies • Caravel- light fast sailing ship • Steered by rudder at the rear • Lateen sails allowed it to sail in any direction Caravel with lateen sails
Explorers from Portugal and Spain • The Portuguese • First country to launch large-scale voyages of exploration. • Prince Henry the Navigator • Patron and supporter of exploration • Established small court with mapmakers, astronomers,others interested in navigation • Explored African coast • Found gold and slave available here • Ultimate goal: find a water route around Africa to India
The Portuguese • (1488) Bartolomeu Dias became first European to attempt sailing around the tip of Africa. (Cape of Good Hope)
Vasco da Gama • (1497) first to sail from Portugal (around Africa) to India. • Found that Muslim traders were already involved in trade. • Helped Portuguese control this trade route • Result: Portugal became one of the richest and most powerful nations in Europe.
The Spanish • Christopher Columbus • Believed he could sail west from Spain and reach China • No idea the Americas were there. • Landed in Caribbean but thought he was in China or East Indies • Called inhabitants Indians. • Thought he found a new route to India….WRONG! • Made three more voyages
Vasco Nunez de Balboa • Led expedition across the Isthmus of Panama. • Became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan • (1519)Sailed for Spain • Five ships with 250 men. • Magellan killed in Philippines. • Crew finally arrived in Spain in 1522 with only 18 survivors. • First to circumnavigate the globe.
The English • John Cabot- explored coast of Canada • Sir Francis Drake- 2nd man to sail around the world. • Henry Hudson- (1607)sailed for the Dutch in search of the Northwest Passage
The French • (1534)Jacques Cartier sailed along St. Lawrence River and claimed as New France • Searched for NW Passage but never found it.
The Dutch • Henry Hudson- searched for Northeast Passage in 1609 (failure) • Northern route to China • Looked for Northwest Passage through the Americas • Hudson River • Hudson Bay • Why in the world are they looking for all of these passages?!!!!!! • $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$