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Classroom Management Strategies for Effective Instruction. Keith Lakes, Behavior Consultant Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior Consultant Upper Cumberland Special Education Co-operative October 2002. Today’s Agenda. Welcome and Opening Activities The Characteristics of an Effective Teacher

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classroom management strategies for effective instruction

Classroom Management Strategies for Effective Instruction

Keith Lakes, Behavior Consultant

Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior Consultant

Upper Cumberland Special Education Co-operative

October 2002

today s agenda
Today’s Agenda
  • Welcome and Opening Activities
  • The Characteristics of an Effective Teacher
  • Effective Behavior Management Strategies
  • Organizing and Managing the Learning Environment
  • Designing Lessons to Enhance Student Learning
  • Closing Activities

Lunch is on your own

Breaks will be taken as needed

goals and objectives
Goals and Objectives…
  • To identify the characteristics of effective teachers
  • To understand why children misbehave and identify effective strategies for dealing with student misbehavior
  • To identify techniques for organizing and managing effective learning environments
  • To identify characteristics of effective lesson planning
  • To identify resources and materials dealing with positive and effective classroom management
presentation techniques utilizing the principles of adult learning theory
Presentation Techniques(Utilizing the Principles of Adult Learning Theory)
  • Discussion
  • Small and large group activities
  • Cooperative learning strategies (i.e., jigsaw, think-pair-share)
  • Self-Reflection
  • Question and answer sessions
  • Active Learning Strategies (i.e., role play, scenarios, simulations)
  • others
classroom management is
Classroom management is…

…all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time and materials so that instruction in content and student learning can take place.

Two major goals…

  • To foster student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities
  • To establish a productive working environment.

-First Days of School, Wong

Describe a



characteristics of a well managed classroom
Characteristics of a Well-Managed Classroom…
  • Students are deeply involved with their work
  • Students know what is expected of them and are generally successful
  • There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, or disruption
  • The climate of the classroom is work-oriented, but relaxed and pleasant.
a well managed classroom is
A well-managed classroom is…
  • A task oriented environment
  • A predictable environment
  • Is ready and waiting for students
brainstorming activity
Brainstorming Activity…

Think of as many responses to the following statement as you can…

An effective

teacher is…..

a dangerous educator
A Dangerous Educator…
  • Believes that this job is not about relationships
  • Believes that this is just a job, and when the school day is over, the work’s all done.
  • Believes that he/she can handle any situation, alone.
  • Believes that, “It was good enough for me, by golly, it oughta’ be good enough for them.”
  • Believes that all these kids need is “a good whippin’.”
a dangerous educator1
A Dangerous Educator…
  • Believes that what he/she does outside of here has no bearing
  • Believes that anger shouldn't be part of the curriculum
  • Never makes time to just sit and listen
  • Believes that this kids have no right to be mad
  • Believes that he/she can’t make a difference
  • Believes that punishment is more effective than discipline
a dangerous educator2
A Dangerous Educator…
  • Thinks you shouldn’t smile until Thanksgiving.
  • Believes that morality and values should only be taught at home
  • Sees the act, not the young person behind it.
  • Believes that strict adherence to the rules is the most important goal of any child’s day.
  • Forgets he/she is modeling.
  • Is a “structure monster”.

-Malcolm Smith

the effective teacher
The Effective Teacher…
  • Establishes good control of the classroom
  • Does things right, consistently
  • Affects and touches lives
  • Exhibits positive expectations for ALL students
  • Establishes good classroom management techniques
the effective teacher1
The Effective Teacher…
  • Designs lessons for student mastery
  • Works cooperatively and learns from colleagues
  • Seeks out a mentor who serves as a role model
  • Goes to professional meetings to learn
  • Has a goal of striving foe excellence
the effective teacher2
The Effective Teacher…
  • Can explain the district’s, school’s, and department or grade level’s curriculum
  • Realizes that teaching is not a private practice
  • Is flexible and adaptable
  • Listens, listens, listens
  • Understands the research process
the effective teacher3
The Effective Teacher…
  • Teaches with proven research-based practices
  • Knows the difference between an effective teacher and an ineffective one
in summary
In summary…

An effective teacher…

  • Has positive expectations for student success
  • Is an extremely good classroom manager
  • Knows how to design lessons for student mastery
understanding our students

Understanding Our Students

Dealing With Student Behavior in Today’s Classrooms

this is not an easy time to work with children and youth
This is not an easy time to work with children and youth…
  • One in six youths (age 10-17) has seen or knows someone who has been shot (Children’s Defense Fund)
  • At least 160,000 students skip class each day because they fear physical harm (NEA)
  • In the last 10 years, the likelihood that a child under 18 will be killed by guns rose almost 250% (FBI Uniform Crime Reports)*
Every U.S. school day, 6,250 teachers are threatened with bodily injury (NEA)
  • More than 150,000 school age children bring a gun to school each school day (Children’s Defense Fund)
  • More than 50% of children in the U.S. fear violent crime against themselves or a family member (Newsweek)*
Every 10 seconds a crime occurs in a U.S. school (Children’s Defense Fund)
  • 70% of those arrested for hate crimes are under age 19 (U.S. News)*
we can trace out of control behaviors to a variety of factors
We can trace out-of-control behaviors to a variety of factors…
  • The physical and emotional climate of the child's home and neighborhood
  • The amount of stability and consistency in the child’s family
  • The parenting styles of the child’s parents
  • The power and influence of peers in a child’s life*
the positive and negative role models available to the child
  • The child’s exposure to violent media
  • The child’s emotional and physical health
  • The child’s own attitude toward his/her anger*
the changing family
The Changing Family
  • In the last two decades, there has been a 200% growth in single parent households (U.S. Bureau of the Census)
  • The number of moms leaving home for work each morning has risen 65% in the past 20 years (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)
  • Nearly 1 in 4 children in the U.S. are living below the poverty level (Children's Defense Fund)*
More than half of all American children will witness their parent’s divorce (U.S. Bureau of the Census)
  • In the last 10 years, the estimated number of child abuse victims has risen by nearly 50% (National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse)
  • The average child has watched 8,000 televised murders and 100,000 acts of violence before finishing elementary school (American Psychological Association)*
why kids misbehave
Why Kids Misbehave
  • Basic has several “Functions”:
    • Attention from peers or adults
    • Attain power/control
    • Revenge or Retaliation
    • Feels Good/Play
    • Fear of Failure
    • Getting something (Sensory Input)
    • Imitation
proactive intervention strategies
Proactive Intervention Strategies
  • Classroom Rules
  • Classroom Schedule
  • Physical Space
  • Attention Signal
  • Beginning and Ending Routines
  • Student Work
  • Classroom Management Plan
          • adapted from the Tough Kid series, and CHAMPs
the rules for rules
The Rules for Rules:
  • Keep the number to a minimum (approx. 5).
  • Keep the wording simple.
  • Have rules represent you basic expectations
  • Keep the wording positive, if possible.
  • Make your rules specific.
  • Make your rules describe behavior that is observable.
classroom rules cont
Classroom Rules, cont.
  • Make your rules describe behavior that is measurable.
  • Assign consequences to breaking the rules.
  • Always include a “compliance rule”.
  • Keep the rules posted.
  • Consider having rules recited daily for first two weeks then periodically..
Inappropriate Rules:

Be responsible

Pay attention

Do your best

Be kind to others

Respect authority

Be polite

Preferred Rules:

Keep hands, feet, and objects to yourself.

Raise your hand and wait for permission to speak.

Sit in your seat unless you have permission to leave it.

Walk, don’t run, at all times in the classroom.

  • The best consequences are reasonable and logical
  • A reasonable consequence is one that follows logically from the behavior rather than one that is arbitrarily imposed
  • The best logical consequences teach the students to choose between acceptable and unacceptable actions.
  • For the following types of student behavior, develop both an example of a logical consequence AND an illogical consequence…
    • Chews gum
    • Turns in sloppy paper
    • Walks in the classroom noisily
    • Passes paper in incorrectly
    • Arrives late
    • Does not bring textbook
    • Does not bring pencil or pen
possible corrective consequences
Possible Corrective Consequences
  • Proximity management
  • Verbal reprimand/Warning
  • Time owed after class
  • In-class time-out
  • Parental contact
  • Restitution
  • Principal Notification Form
  • Disciplinary Referral

It should be noted that prior to enacting corrective consequences, positive reinforcement strategies should be utilized.

classroom schedules1
Classroom Schedules
  • Avoid “Down Time”
  • Approximately 70% of the school day is geared for academic engagement. (5.2 hrs.)
  • Begin each activity on-time.

“The best behavior plans are excellent academic lesson plans.” – source unknown

classroom schedules2
Classroom Schedules
  • Budget your academic time
    • Example: 1 hr. allotment
      • 5 min. Teacher-directed review
      • 10 min. Introduction of new concepts
      • 10 min. Guided practice, working on assignment
      • 25 min. Independent/Cooperative work
      • 10 min. Teacher-directed corrections
physical space1
Physical Space
  • Arrange desks to optimize the most common types of instructional tasks you will have students engaged in.
    • Desks in Rows, Front to Back
    • Desks in Row, Side to Side
    • Desks in Clusters
    • Desks in U-Shape
physical space cont
Physical Space, cont.
  • Make sure you have access to all parts of the room.
  • Feel free to assign seats, and change at will.
  • Minimize the disruptions caused by high traffic areas in the class.
  • Arrange to devote some of your bulletin board/display space to student work.
physical space cont1
Physical Space, cont.
  • If needed, arrange for a “Time-Out” space in your classroom that is as unobtrusive as possible.
  • Desks do not have to be in traditional rows, but all chairs should face forward so that all eyes are focused on the teacher
students who cause behavioral problems
Students Who Cause Behavioral Problems:
  • Aggressive (the hyperactive, agitated, unruly student)
  • Resistant (the student who won’t work)
  • Distractible (the student who can’t concentrate)
  • Dependent (the student who wants help all the time)
location for students who cause behavioral problems
Location for Students who cause behavioral problems:
  • Separate—disruptive students; maybe aggressive and resistant students
  • Nearby—disruptive students; maybe distractible, dependent, and resistant
prepare the work area
Prepare the Work Area…
  • Arrange work areas and seats so that you can easily see and monitor all the students and areas no matter where you are in the room
  • Be sure that students will be able to see you as well as frequently used areas of the classroom
  • Keep traffic areas clear
  • Keep access to storage areas, bookcases, cabinets, and doors clear
  • Learn the emergency procedures
  • Make sure you have enough chairs for the work areas
prepare the work area1
Prepare the Work Area…
  • Be sure to have all necessary materials in easily accessible areas
  • Test any equipment to make sure that it works BEFORE you use it
  • Use materials such as tote bags, boxes, coffee cans, dishpans, etc. to store materials that students will need.
  • Arrange work areas where students can go for reading and math groups, science, lab areas, project work, learning centers, and independent study. (Remember, you may not need these areas on the first days of school.
prepare the student area
Prepare the Student Area…
  • Plan areas for student belongings
    • Coats
    • Binders
    • Backpacks
    • Books
    • Lunchboxes
    • Lost and found items
    • others
prepare the wall space
Prepare the Wall Space…
  • Cover one or more bulletin boards with colored paper and trim, and leave it bare for the purpose of displaying student work and artifacts.
  • Display your discipline plan in a prominent place.
  • Post procedures, assigned duties, calendar, clock, emergency information, schedules, menus, charts, maps, decorations, birthdays, and student work.
  • Have a consistent place for listing the day’s or week’s assignments
prepare the wall space1
Prepare the Wall Space…
  • Post a large example of the proper heading or style for papers to be done in class
  • Post examples of tests students will take, assignments they will turn in, and papers they will write
  • Display the feature topic, theme, chapter, or skill for the day or the current unit
prepare the bookcases
Prepare the bookcases…
  • Do not place the bookcases or display wall where they obstruct any lines of visions
  • Rotate materials on the shelves, and leave out only those items that you are willing to allow students to handle
  • Do not place books or other loose materials near an exit where they can easily disappear or where they may hide emergency information
prepare the teaching materials
Prepare the Teaching Materials…
  • Let students know what materials you want them to bring from home. Have a place and a procedure ready for the storage of these materials.
  • Have a seating plan prepared.
  • Have basic materials ready
  • Find and organize containers for materials.
  • Store seldom used materials out of the way
  • Place electronic media where there are electrical outlets and where the students will not trip over the wires; have extension cords, adapter plugs, and batteries
  • Obtain a supply of the forms that are used for daily school routines
  • Organize, file, inventory
prepare yourself and your area
Prepare Yourself and Your Area…
  • Do not create a barrier between yourself and the students.
  • Place your desk away from the door so that no one can take things from your desk and quickly walk out.
  • Communicate to your students that everything in and on you desk is to be treated as personal property and off limits to them
prepare yourself and your area1
Prepare Yourself and Your Area…
  • Keep your personal belongings in a safe location
  • Have emergency materials handy
    • Personal items
    • Extra lunch money
  • Obtain the materials that you need before you need them
attention signal
Attention Signal
  • Decide upon a signal you can use to get students’ attention.
  • Teach students to respond to the signal by focusing on you and maintaining complete silence.
example the hand raise
Example: The “Hand Raise”
  • Say: “Class, your attention please.”
  • At the same time, swing right arm in a circular motion from the 9:00 position to the 12:00 position.
  • This prompts all students to stop, look at you and raise hand.
advantages to hand raise
Advantages to Hand Raise
  • It can be given from any location in the room.
  • It can be used outside the classroom.
  • It has both a visual and auditory component.
  • It has the “ripple effect”.




Why Do We Punish?

  • Because it works
    • Punishment is effective for approximately 95% of our students
  • It’s quick
    • Punishment produces a rapid (but often temporary) suppression of behavior
  • It requires lower level thinking skills.
discipline vs punishment
D: strives to replace an unwanted behavior with a desirable behavior

P: takes away a behavior by force, but replaces it with nothing*

Discipline vs. Punishment
discipline vs punishment1
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: Is firm and consistent, but peaceful
  • P: inflicts harm in the name of good*
discipline vs punishment2
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: Positive behavioral change is expected
  • P: The worst is expected, and the worst is often received*
discipline vs punishment3
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: May may the youth angry at fist, but calls for self-evaluation and change rather than self-degradation
  • P: Agitates and often causes anger and resentment on the part of the child (which may have caused the behavior in the first place)*
discipline vs punishment4
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: Takes time and energy but consequences are logical and encourage restitution
  • P: Is immediate and high-impact but is hardly ever logical*
discipline vs punishment5
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: Allows child to rebuild self-esteem
  • P: Damages fragile self-esteem*
discipline vs punishment6
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: Disciplinarian is in control of his/her own emotions
  • P: Allows anger to be released physically by punisher, allowing for dangerous loss of control on adult’s part*
discipline vs punishment7
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: Is not threatening, dangerous or abusive
  • P: Can be physically and emotionally dangerous*
discipline vs punishment8
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: Allows for reflection and restitution
  • P: Does not allow the child to make up for his/her behavior*
discipline vs punishment9
Discipline vs. Punishment
  • D: is caring but takes time and planning
  • P: is often “off the cuff” and emotionally charged*
important aspects of a well disciplined classroom
Important Aspects of a Well-Disciplined Classroom…
  • Discipline
  • Procedures
  • Routines

Effective teachers introduce rules, procedures, and routines on the very first day of school and continue to teach and reinforce them throughout the school year.

The number one problem in the classroom is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines.
discipline vs procedures
Discipline vs. Procedures…
  • Discipline: Concerns how students BEHAVE

Procedures: Concerns how things are DONE

  • Discipline: HAS penalties and rewards

Procedures: Have NO penalties or rewards

A procedure is simply a method or process for how things are to be done in a classroom.

Students must know from the very beginning how they are expected to behave and work in a classroom environment.
  • DISCIPLINE dictates how students are to behave
  • PROCEDURES and ROUTINES dictate how students are to work
  • Are statements of student expectations necessary to participate successfully in classroom activities, to learn, and to function effectively in the school environment
  • Allow many different activities to take place efficiently during the school day, often several at the same time, with a minimum of wasted time and confusion
  • Increase on-task time and greatly reduce classroom disruptions
  • Tell a student how things operate in the classroom, thus reducing discipline problems
A PROCEDURE is how you want something done

It is the responsibility of the the teacher to communicate effectively

A ROUTINE is what the student does automatically without prompting or supervision

Becomes a habit, practice, or custom for the student

A smooth-running class is the responsibility of the teacher, and it is the result of the teacher’s ability to teach procedures.
procedures answer questions such as
Procedures answer questions such as…
  • What to do when the bell rings
  • What to do when the pencil breaks
  • What to do when you hear an emergency alert signal
  • What to do when you finish your work early
  • What to do when you have a question
  • What to do when you need to go to the restroom
  • How to enter the classroom
  • Where to put completed work
  • Choose one of the items from handout #____
  • Develop a set of procedures for the item of your choice
  • Display
  • Gallery Walk
three steps to teach procedures
Three Steps to Teach Procedures…
  • EXPLAIN. State, explain, model, and demonstrate the procedure.
  • REHEARSE. Practice the procedure under your supervision.
  • REINFORCE. Reteach, rehearse, practice, and reinforce the classroom procedure until it becomes a student habit or routine.
discipline with the body not the mouth
Discipline with the Body…not the Mouth…
  • EXCUSE yourself from what you are doing
  • RELAX. Take a slow relaxing breath and CALMLY approach the student with a meaningful look.
  • FACE the student directly and CALMLY wait for a response.
  • If there is no response, WHISPER the student’s first name and follow with what you want the student to do, ending with “please”. RELAX and WAIT.

5. If the student does not get to work, RELAX and WAIT. Repeat Step 4 if necessary.

6. If backtalk occurs, relax, wait and KEEP QUIET. If the student wants to talk back, keep the first principle of dealing with backtalk in mind:




7. When the student responds with the appropriate behavior say, “Thank you,” and leave with an affirmative SMILE. If a student goes so far as to earn an office referral, you can deliver it just as well RELAXED. After all, ruining your composure and peace of mind does not enhance classroom management.

-Adapted from Fred Jones, Positive Classroom

Discipline and Positive Classroom Instruction

beginning and ending routines
Beginning and Ending Routines…
  • Entering Class
    • Goal: Students will feel welcome and will immediately go to their seats and start on a productive task.
      • Greet the students at the door.
      • Have a task prepared for students to work on as they sit down.
      • Do your “housekeeping”.
      • Keep tasks short (3-5 min.)
      • When you’ve finished, address the task.
beginning and ending routine cont
Beginning and Ending Routine, cont.
  • Ending Routine
    • Goal: Your procedures for ending the day/class will:
      • Ensure that students will not leave the classroom before they have organized their own materials and completed any necessary clean-up tasks.
      • Ensure the you have enough time to give students both positive and corrective feedback, and to set a positive tone for ending the class.
beginning and ending routines cont
Beginning and Ending Routines, cont.
  • Dismissal
    • Goal: Students will not leave the classroom until they are dismissed by you (not the bell).
      • Explain that the bell is a signal for you.
      • Excuse the class when things are reasonably quiet and all “wrap up” activities are completed.
      • General Rule:
        • Dismiss primary students by rows
        • Dismiss older students by class
student work
Student Work
  • Design efficient procedures for assigning, monitoring, and collecting student work.
  • 5 Major Areas of Managing Student Work:
    • Assigning Class Work and Homework
    • Managing Independent Work Periods
    • Collecting Completed Work
    • Keeping Records and Providing Feedback
    • Dealing with Late/Missing Assignments
ponder this
Ponder This…
  • You don’t build your football team on the day of the game.
  • You don’t drill a well when you get thirsty.
  • And you don’t discuss procedures once an emergency has begun.
classroom management plan1
Classroom Management Plan…
  • 8 Components:

1) Level of Classroom Structure – based on risk factors of your students.

2) Guidelines for Success – attitudes, traits, or behaviors to help achieve success.

3) Rules – specific, observable, and measurable behavioral objectives

4) Teaching Expectations – What, how, and when expectations will be taught

classroom management plan2
Classroom Management Plan…

5) Monitoring – How you will monitor the progress of the expectations.

6) Encouragement Procedures – How you will encourage students to demonstrate motivated and responsible behavior.

7) Correction Procedures – How you will respond to irresponsible behavior.

8) Managing Student Work – What procedures and systems you will use to manage student work.

for every activity
For Every Activity…
  • Make sure students know your behavioral expectation.
  • Consider the CHAMPs level of structure:
  • Conversation: Under what circumstances, if at all, can the students talk to each other during the activity.
    • Can students engage in conversations with each other during this activity?
    • If yes, about what?
    • How many students can be involved in a single conversation?
    • How long can the conversation last?
champs cont
CHAMPs, cont.
  • Help – How do students get their questions answered during the activity?
    • How do they get your attention?
    • If students have to wait for help, what should they go while they wait?
champs cont1
CHAMPs, cont.
  • Activity – What is the activity?
    • What is your expected “end product”?
    • This will likely change daily, according to your lesson plans.
champs cont2
CHAMPs, cont.
  • Movement – Under what circumstance, if at all, can students move about during the activity?
    • If yes, for what?
      • Pencil Restroom
      • Drink Hand in/pick up materials
      • Other…
    • Do they need permission from you?
champs cont3
CHAMPs, cont.
  • Participation – What does appropriate student work behavior during the activity look/sound like?
    • What behaviors show that students are participating fully and responsibly?
    • What behaviors show that a student in not participating?
angry students
Angry Students
  • Goal: To help channel and direct the student to constructive outcomes.
    • Assist the child in learning acceptable ways of expressing this emotion.
  • Caution!!
    • Caution should be taken to avoid repressing or destroying the feeling of anger.
  • Anger may be…
    • A defense to avoid painful feelings
    • Associated with failure
    • Associated with low self-esteem
    • Associated with feelings of isolation
    • Related to feelings of anxiety over where the child has no control
anger vs sadness
Anger vs. Sadness
  • Child – anger and sadness closely related.
    • Expresses sadness as anger.
  • Adult – expresses sadness as sadness.
angry child interventions
Angry Child Interventions
  • 1) Catch the child being good. Tell what behaviors please you.
    • Respond to positive efforts and reinforce good behavior.
      • “Thanks for sitting in your seat quietly.”
      • “You worked hard on that project, and I admire you effort.”
angry child interventions1
Angry Child Interventions
  • 2) Deliberately ignore inappropriate behavior that can be tolerated.
    • Tell child what you are doing.
    • If attention seeking, it will get worse before better.
    • Be consistent
angry child interventions2
Angry Child Interventions
  • 3) Provide physical outlets and other alternatives.
    • Pre-plan opportunities for child to release stored energy
    • Consider meaningful work
angry child interventions3
Angry Child Interventions
  • 4) Manipulate the surroundings.
    • Look for triggers both inside/outside your class.
    • Re-examine your rules.
    • Consider the child’s physical space.
angry child interventions4
Angry Child Interventions
  • 5) Use closeness and touching.
    • Move physically closer to the child
    • Consider gently placing your hand on the child’s shoulder
    • Works best with younger children
angry child interventions5
Angry Child Interventions
  • 6) Express interest in the child’s activities.
    • Develop the relationship
    • Teachers are often the best therapists
angry child interventions6
Angry Child Interventions
  • 7) Ease tension through humor.
    • Attempt to “joke” the child out of an episode.
    • This will help “save face”.
    • Be careful to distinguish between humor and teasing.
      • If sarcastic tone, child may become more angry.
angry child interventions7
Angry Child Interventions
  • 8) Explain situations to the child.
    • Assist the child in understanding what situations can contribute to their anger
    • Assist the child in learning appropriate alternative responses.
      • Allow for practice/role play
when an explosion is pending
When An Explosion is Pending…
  • The Crisis Cycle:
    • StimulusThoughtsFeelings
    • ActionConsequence
the curve of explosion
The Curve of Explosion
  • Stimulus- initiates the process.
  • Period of Escalation- child calls on available coping skills.
    • Anger will resolve or escalate
    • Begins to think less and feel more
    • Try to get child to talk
    • Use Active Listening skills
    • Monitor your Para-Verbal Communication
    • Assume a Calm Demeanor
the curve of explosion cont
The Curve of Explosion, cont.
  • Do’s
    • DO use positive expectations.
    • DO use “I” statements.
    • DO reflect the emotion you hear.
    • DO use non-verbal affirmation.
    • DO try to direct the youth into a problem solving mode.
the curve of explosion cont1
The Curve of Explosion, cont.
  • Don’ts
    • Don’t lead with the rules.
    • Don’t lead with the consequences.
    • Don’t begin statements with the word, “You”.
    • Don’t ask “Why” questions.
the curve of explosion cont2
The Curve of Explosion, cont.
  • Out of Control- behavior is driven by emotion.
    • Thought process is repressed.
    • Avoid threats of disciplinary sanctions.
    • All youth to “vent” safely.
    • Physical restraint may be required.
the curve of explosion cont3
The Curve of Explosion, cont.
  • Period of De-escalation.
    • Thought processes begin to stabilize.
    • Emotional control is re-established.
    • Student may be tired.
    • Student may request to be left alone.
pre corrections
  • “Thank you for not smoking.”
  • Serves as a gentle reminder of expectations.
  • Gives students an opportunity to mentally prepare before an activity.
  • Always respond to sincere efforts to comply.
classroom behavior modification using pre correction for classroom
Classroom Behavior Modificationusing: “Pre-Correction for Classroom”
  • Seven steps:
    • “1) Identify the context and the likely problem behavior.
    • 2) Specify the expected behaviors.
    • 3) Systematically modify the context.
    • 4) Conduct behavioral rehearsals.
    • 5) Provide strong reinforcement for expected behaviors.
    • 6) Prompt expected behaviors.
    • 7) Monitor the plan.
pre correction scenario
Pre-Correction Scenario

1) Context – students entering classroom immediately after recess.

  • Predictable behavior – students shouting, laughing, and pushing before complying with teacher direction.

2) Expected Behavior – Entering the room quietly, go to desks, begin task, keep hands to self.

pre correction scenario cont
Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.

3) Context modification – Teacher meets students at door, has them wait and then go to desk to begin entry tasks.

4) Behavior rehearsal – Teacher reminds students just before recess of expected behaviors. Asks “student” to tell what are expected behaviors.

pre correction scenario cont1
Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.
  • Strong reinforcement – Students are told that if they cooperate with teacher requests, they will have additional break and 5 extra minutes for recess.

6) Prompts – Teacher gives signals at the door to be quiet and points to activity on Chalkboard. Teacher says “ssshh” to noisy students and praises students who are beginning work.

pre correction scenario cont2
Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.

7) Monitoring plan – Teacher uses a watch to measure how long it takes for all students begin their tasks immediately (within 10 seconds).

5 steps to correction
5 Steps to Correction

1) List Previous Positive Behavior.

  • “Elizabeth, yesterday you did such a good job staying in your seat and paying attention. I really appreciate how you behaved.”

2) State Current Behavior.

  • “However, today Elizabeth, you’ve been out of your seat, disrupting class several times.”
5 steps to correction cont
5 Steps to Correction, cont.

3) State Expectations.

  • “Elizabeth, what I expect from you is, for you to go to your seat, sit in your seat, pay attention, and only talk to your neighbors when I give you permission.”

4) Child Repeats.

  • “You want me to go to my seat, sit down, listen, and keep my mouth shut.”
5 steps to correction cont1
5 Steps to Correction, cont.
  • 5) Praise Any Efforts.
    • Acknowledge any compliance
      • Be positive
      • Be sincere
      • Be encouraging
    • You need a positive relationship with the student to use this effectively.
If you want it…teach it. If you expect to maintain it, encourage it, acknowledge it, and reinforce it.
          • source unknown
post correction
  • Adapted from the “Life Space Interview” model, Fritz Redl.
  • Allows the child an opportunity to process and learn from the experience.
  • Should be done by the adult who witnessed the incident.
  • Should be done within 24 hours. (As soon as both parties are calm)
5 steps to post correction
5 Steps to Post-Correction

1) Youth’s Perception-

  • Adult should:
    • Listen
    • Refrain from judgments and corrections
    • Ask questions which help student with description
      • Attempt to find out what student was trying to achieve
5 steps to post correction cont
5 Steps to Post-Correction, cont.

2) Adult’s Perception-

  • Discuss what parts of incident you see same and differently
  • Provide reality base

3) Connection Incident to Pattern of behavior

  • Assist student in seeing a behavior pattern he/she has developed
5 steps to post correction cont1
5 Steps to Post-Correction, cont.

4) Explore Alternative Behaviors-

  • Prompts may be used
  • Important to let student find options

5) Develop A Plan-

  • May use behavior contract
  • Assure student of adult commitment
  • Discuss consequences for next incident
“Always say what you mean, and mean what you say…but don’t say it in a mean way.”
          • Nicholas Long
“No improvement will occur in instruction until the classroom climate improves.”

“Classrooms have personalities just like people.”

-63 Ways of Improving Classroom Instruction

(Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons)

classroom environment1
Classroom Environment
  • Polsky’s Diamond – Dr. Howard Polsky
    • The Five Ranks of Social Power:
      • Leaders
      • Lieutenants
      • Members
      • Status Seekers
      • Scapegoats
polsky s diamond cont
Polsky’s Diamond, cont.
  • The Social Interaction with-in diamond is prompted by the need for 3 things….

1)Power – influence over one’s own life

2)Affiliation – belonging

3)Achievement – status

so their behaviors look like
….so their behaviors look like:
  • Social functions of Behavior:
    • Attention Seeking (adult/peer)
    • Power/control
    • Fear of failure/frustration
    • Imitation
  • Other functions of Behavior:
    • Getting something (sensory input)
    • Revenge or retaliation
    • Avoidance (person/activity, demands or requests)
    • Feels Good/Play
social skills
Social Skills…

How do “Tough Kids” meet these needs?

  • Behavioral Excesses-
    • Aggression Arguing
    • Hitting Fighting
    • Shouting Teasing
    • Blaming Provoking
  • Behavioral Deficits-
    • Using self-control Cooperating
    • Problem Solving Helping
    • Sharing Making good decisions
need for social skills
Need for Social Skills
  • In order to assist the child in meeting the 3 needs, effective social skills instruction should be employed.
  • Social Skills: Basic skills needed to successfully interact with adults and peers.
6 components of an effective social skills program
6 Components of an Effective Social Skills Program
  • 1) Rationale
  • 2) Modeling
  • 3) Concept Teaching
  • 4) Role Playing/Behavior Rehearsal and Practice
  • 5) Coaching
  • 6) Contingent Reinforcement
social skill topics
Social Skill Topics
  • Basic Social Skills:
    • Body Basics- (FEVER)
      • Face person
      • Eye contact
      • Voice volume/tone/rate
      • Expression should match
      • Relaxed posture
    • Starting, Joining, and Maintaining a Conversation
      • With Adults
      • With Peers
social skills topics cont
Social Skills Topics, cont.
  • Basic Social Skills:
    • Recognizing and Expressing Feelings
    • Playing Cooperatively
    • Solving Problems
    • Using Self-Control
    • Solving Arguments
    • Dealing with Teasing
    • Dealing with Being Left Out
    • Accepting “NO”
    • Following Directions
social skill topics cont
Social Skill Topics, cont.
  • Intermediate to Advanced Skills:
    • Accepting negative feedback
    • Learning how to say “NO”.
    • Assertiveness
    • Resisting peer pressure
    • Resisting teasing
    • Managing anger
    • etc.
social skills assessment
Social Skills Assessment
  • Social Skills Survey
    • Can be completed by student
      • May be determined by age/maturity
    • Can be completed by teacher
    • Can be completed by parent
    • Average and rank scores
    • Deliver necessary Social Skills Instruction
social skills programs
Social Skills Programs
  • Second Steps
  • Skill Streaming
  • Tough Kid Series
  • SCORE Skills
the correct question
The Correct Question…
  • DON’T ASK: “What am I going to cover tomorrow?”
  • DO ASK: “What are my students going to learn, achieve, and accomplish tomorrow?”

The role of the teacher is not to cover. The role of the teacher is to UNCOVER.

Learning has nothing to do with what the teacher COVERS.
  • Learning ahs to do with what the student ACCOMPLISHES.
what is a lesson plan
What is a lesson plan?
  • Teacher’s guide
  • Design for the learning of the student
  • Series of student centered learning
  • Focused on what the student needs to know and be able to do
  • Covers one day or several days
  • Allows for the teachable moment
experienced teacher standards
Experienced Teacher Standards
  • Demonstrates Professional Leadership
  • Demonstrates Knowledge of Content
  • Designs/Plans Instruction
  • Creates and Maintains Learning Climate
  • Implements/Manages Instruction
  • Assesses and communicates Learning Results
  • Collaborates with Colleagues/Parents/Others
  • Engages in Professional Development
performance criteria standard 3
Performance Criteria Standard 3
  • Focuses instruction on one or more of KY’s learning goals and academic expectations
  • Develops instruction that requires students to apply knowledge, skills, and thinking processes
  • Integrates skills, thinking processes, and content across disciplines
  • Creates/utilizes learning experiences that challenge, motivate, and actively involve the learner
  • Creates and uses learning experiences that are developmentally appropriate for learners
performance criteria standard 31
Performance Criteria Standard 3
  • Develops and incorporates strategies that address physical, social, and cultural diversity and that show sensitivity to others
  • Arranges the physical classroom to support the types of teaching and learning to occur
  • Includes creative and appropriate use of technology to improve student learning
  • Develops and implements appropriate assessment processes
performance criteria standard 32
Performance Criteria Standard 3
  • Secures/uses a variety of appropriate school and community resources to support learning
  • Develops/incorporates learning experiences that encourage students to be adaptable\, flexible, resourceful, and creative
  • Uses knowledge required from past teaching experiences to anticipate instructional challenges
thinking about lesson planning

Thinking About Lesson Planning

Who Am I Planning For?

What Am I Supposed To Do?

two types of assignments
Two Types of Assignments…
  • Ineffective Assignments:
    • The teacher tells the class what is to be covered
      • Chapter 7; Moby Dick; long division; ecosystems
  • Effective Assignments:
    • The teacher tells the students what they are to have accomplished or mastered at the end of the lesson
    • Teach with the end in mind
creating effective assignments
Creating Effective Assignments…
  • Think what you want the students to accomplish
  • Write each step as a single sentence.
  • Write in simple language
  • Duplicate the list of steps and give it to the students
effective assignments
Effective Assignments…
  • Must have structure and be precise
  • Structure
    • The assignment must have a consistent and familiar format that the students can recognize as their assignment
    • The assignment must be posted daily in a consistent location BEFORE students enter the room
  • Preciseness
    • The assignment must state clearly and simply what the students are to ACCOMPLISH
To teach for learning, use words, especially verbs, that show learning has taken place.
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Knowledge
    • Comprehension
    • Application
    • Analysis
    • Synthesis
    • evaluation
  • Are usually the “trouble-makers”
  • Can be passive aggressive or overtly aggressive
  • Have negative attitude
  • Have attendance problems
  • Are “at risk”
  • Etc., etc., etc……
  • Go with the flow
  • Are usually good-natured, but have limited motivation
  • Are social beings
  • Tend to cooperate; follow MOST rules
  • Perform to the average or just enough to stay out of trouble with mom/dad
  • Etc., etc., etc……
  • Are in the top 10-15% of their class
  • Are “teacher pleasers”
  • Are highly motivated to perform well
  • Show enthusiasm for learning
  • May be “over achievers” and /or high achievers
  • Etc., etc., etc…….
pre planning strategies
Pre-Planning Strategies
  • Determine the learning styles of your students
  • Determine reading levels/skills of students
  • Inventory access to technology
  • Connect writing to what is being taught
  • Focus on academic expectations and core content
  • Establish a variety of instructional strategies
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • What do I want all students to know and be able to do at the end of this lesson?
  • What will I do to cause this learning to happen?
  • What will students do to facilitate this learning?
  • How will I assess to find out if this learning happened?
  • What will I do for those who show through assessment that the learning did not take place?
think pair share

“Best Practices” in Lesson Planning

Some Guiding Principles

Adapted From: 63 Ways of Teaching or Learning Anything by Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons

thinking it through
Thinking It Through…
  • Lesson Content
  • Learning Level
  • Instructional Methods, Materials, Activities
  • Student Activities
  • Evaluation Tools, Strategies, Activities
the lesson plan rubric
The Lesson Plan Rubric
  • Academic Focus
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Student Engagement
  • Writing Strategy
  • Reading Strategy
  • Technology Strategy
  • Assessment Strategy
the unmotivated student
The Unmotivated Student…
  • Problems often emerge during late elementary or middle school.
  • Often initiated by early academic problem.
  • Begins to see school as a place of “drudgery”.
  • Will most often become discipline problem.
  • At risk of becoming a “drop out”.
unmotivated student cont
Unmotivated Student, cont.
  • Factors That Influence Motivation:
    • Fear of Failure – “Better to look bad, than stupid”. Safer not to try.
    • Lack of Meaning – May not see relevance to assignments.
    • Emotional Distress – Anxiety/Depression from influences at home.
    • Learning Disability – Give up in frustration.
unmotivated student cont1
Unmotivated Student, cont.
  • Lack of Challenge
  • Desire for Attention – look helpless to teacher
  • Peer Concern – not cool to like school
  • Low Expectation – no encouragement from home
  • Expression of Anger – due to pressure from parents
unmotivated student interventions
Unmotivated Student Interventions
  • Assess the origin,(records, teachers, etc)
  • Talk with the Student Privately – develop the relationship.
  • Provide a Warm, Accepting Climate
  • Stay Close to the Student
  • Introduce the Lesson with Enthusiasm
  • Give Clear Direction and Feedback
  • Present Tasks in Manageable Doses
  • Orchestrate the Student’s Success
  • Highlight the Student’s Talents
unmotivated student interventions cont
Unmotivated Student Interventions, cont.
  • Vary Your Teaching Style
  • Relate Instruction to Student’s Interests
  • Make Instruction Relevant to Real World
  • Provide Hands-on Activities
  • Apply “Meaningful Work”…CHAMPs
  • Allow Student Some Control over What and How He Learns
  • Praise Student’s Efforts and Accomplishments
  • If Student is Too Cool, consider incentives, rewards, group recognition ( spark some competition)
  • Challenge the Student
Constant movement

Easily distracted

Lack of control


Does not attend to cues

Provide structured high activity tasks

Allow for control movement

Reward on-task behaviors

Use color codes for recognitions of behaviors


Minimal problem-solving skills

Dependent learner

Views ability versus effort as a problem

Focus attention on key elements of activity

Develop and mental map with student

Facilitate routine success

Help the student self-monitor performance

Speaks before thinking out answers

Cannot monitor behavior

Impatient with repetition

Avoids anxiety

Provide short and specific directions

Reflective evaluation

Develop problem-solving

Model expected behaviors

Allow behavior outlets

disruptive behavior
Refuses to do work

Defy authority

Intimidates other students

Distract teaching through verbal or physical means

Reinforce positive behavior

Use high interest personally relevant material

Provide short successes

Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area of Behavior Management
  • The classroom is organized in a manner that encourages order, participation, independence, and continuous learning
  • There is a small number of meaningful rules
  • Students understand and enforce rules
  • The teacher is constantly teaching independent behavior management skills
  • The teacher spends an appropriate amount of time at the beginning of the school year establishing the culture and climate for positive acceptable behavior
  • Student’s demonstrating appropriate behaviors constantly receive positive reinforcement
Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area of Behavior Management
  • The teacher handles inappropriate behavior in a firm, fair, consistent, and caring manner
  • The teacher’s interactions with students are positive and reinforce the importance of student success
  • The teacher has several motivators that reinforce and shape student positive behaviors
  • Classroom instruction is well organized, meaningful, and allows for student differences (individual and group)
  • Classroom management strategies are appropriate to the environment and needs of the students
Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area of Behavior Management
  • There is an established communication between home and school
  • Students receive constant positive reinforcement for doing good work and encouragement to do better
  • Student work is displayed throughout the classroom and behavior and learning reinforcers are visible throughout the room
descriptors of a teacher who is successful at behavior instruction and reinforcement
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement
  • The teacher has the ability to KNOW and effectively RELATE to his/her students
    • Establishes rapport and trust
    • Separates unacceptable behavior from student as a person
    • Knows total student in and out of school
    • Knows student’s interests/likes/dislikes
descriptors of a teacher who is successful at behavior instruction and reinforcement1
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement
  • The teacher has practical and current KNOWLEDGE of behavior management strategies
    • Classroom design
    • Classroom management
    • Establishing baseline data
    • Developing a behavior plan
descriptors of a teacher who is successful at behavior instruction and reinforcement2
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement
  • The teacher APPLIES behavior management strategies in a FLEXIBLE and TIMELY manner
    • Ability to quickly analyze situation and appropriately apply techniques
    • Has good timing-when and where to react and respond
descriptors of a teacher who is successful at behavior instruction and reinforcement3
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement
    • Is clear and predictable from day 1
    • Communicates expectations often
    • Can re-establish respect after encounters
    • constantly reinforces expected behavior
teachers who are successful at behavior instruction and reinforcement
Teachers who are successful at behavior instruction and reinforcement…
  • Have a keen AWARENESS of the classroom
  • ATTEND to more than one matter at a time
  • Train students to follow established classroom PROCEDURES/ROUTINES without disturbing others
  • PACE their instruction without unnecessary delays
  • Use a variety of techniques to keep students INTERESTED and INVOLVED
  • Use various techniques to check student INVOLOVEMNT, LEARNING, and ATTENTION
  • Use EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES with individual students that guide other student’s behavior
word wall activity
Word Wall Activity…
  • In your group, discuss the term(s) that you have chosen.
  • Think about what we have discussed about this item today.
  • Share:
    • Your thoughts and
    • A factual statement
Now What?

Where do I go from here?

contacting today s presenters
Contacting Today’s Presenters….
  • Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior ConsultantUpper Cumberland Special Education CooperativePhone: 606-337-3555Email:
  • Keith Lakes, Behavior ConsultantUpper Cumberland Special Education CooperativePhone: 606-364-4673Email: