IUPAC RULES FOR NAMING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS II. 1. When naming an organic molecule with a carbonyl group (i.e. acid chloride, amide, aldehyde) find the longest continuous carbon chain and name it. Then drop the -e on the end of the name and replace it with:
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a. –oyl chloride for an acid chloride
b. –amide for an amide
c. –al for an aldehyde
The carbonyl carbon is always included in the name of the longest continuous carbon chain. It is also always counted as the #1 carbon when substituents are attached.
a. –oic acid for a carboxylic acid
b. –oate for a salt of a carboxylic acid
c. –oate for an ester
For b and c above the metal (of the ion) and the alkyl group attached to the single bonded oxygen in the carboxyl group are always named first.
3. When naming a ketone, one of two methods may be used:
a. Find the longest continuous carbon chain, name it, drop the –e on the end of the name and replace it with –one. With chains greater than four carbons a number precedes the name designating where the carbonyl group is located.
b. The two groups (usually alkyl) on either side of the carbonyl group are named in alphabetical order before the word ketone.