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Robotics. Robots. Mechanical or virtual artificial agent guided by a program or electronic circuitry of varying autonomy Virtual robots often known as ‘bots’ Range from industrial, humanoid, nano - or utilitarian. History. 400 BC: First “robot” constructed by Archytas

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robots
Robots
  • Mechanical or virtual artificial agent guided by a program or electronic circuitry of varying autonomy
  • Virtual robots often known as ‘bots’
  • Range from industrial, humanoid, nano- or utilitarian
history
History
  • 400 BC: First “robot” constructed by Archytas
  • 1495: First humanoid robot created by Leonardo da Vinci
  • 1738: Jacques de Vaucanson’s mechanical duck
  • 1898: Tesla’s remote controlled robotic boat
history1
History
  • 1941: Asimov’s Three Laws
  • 1961: Unimate, the first industrial robot
  • 1977: Voyager I and Voyager II
  • 2002: Roomba
  • 2010: Robonaut 2
recent advances
Recent advances
  • ASIMO
  • DARPA’s Cheetah
  • BigDog
  • Violin Playing
  • Geminoids
intelligence
Intelligence
  • Definition:
  • Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand, and interact with one’s environment. This general ability consists of a number of specific abilities::
  • Adaptability
  • Knowledge
  • Reasoning and abstract thought
  • Comprehending
  • Evaluating and judging
  • Production of original and productive thought
  • How to decide if a machine such as a computer is intelligent?
the turing test
The Turing Test
  • Alan Turing
  • 1951
  • “The Imitation Game”
  • If judge as likely to pick human or computer, passable simulation and hence, intelligent
objections to turing test
Objections to Turing Test
  • a behavioral test
  • Not based on inner
  • Can we pass the Turing Test while still possessing no “real” intelligence?
the argument
The Argument
  • Weak AI
  • Operations on formal symbols
  • Do not exhibit understanding
  • Strong AI
  • said to understand
  • provide answers to questions
  • explains human ability
harold cohen aaron
Harold Cohen & AARON
  • English painter
  • Director of Center for Research in Computing and the Arts (CRCA) at UCSD
  • Harold Cohen and AARON
iamus computer
Iamus computer
  • computer cluster
  • Universidad de Málaga.
  • composes full pieces of contemporary classical music.
  • 8 minutes to create a full composition
  • Adsum in concert

Iamusfirst complete album composed by a computer and recorded by human musicians

core ideas
Core ideas
  • Law of Accelerating Returns
  • “Intelligence explosion”
  • Intelligence amplification (IA)
ray kurzweil
Ray Kurzweil
  • Major proponent
  • Predicted the singularity to occur in 2045
  • Author, inventor, and futurist
  • Google’s director of engineering
  • TED Talk
law of accelerating returns
Law of Accelerating Returns
  • Similar to Moore’s Law
  • Proposed by Ray Kurzweil
intelligence amplification
Intelligence Amplification
  • Coined by William Ross Ashby
  • Integrating human parts with machine parts
  • Current examples: Cochlear implants, bionic eye
  • In the future: Replacing slow neurons with faster integrated circuits
  • Kurzweil(6:00)
issues to consider
Issues to consider
  • Ethically acceptable to integrate ourselves with technology?
  • Can human behavior be spelled out in an algorithm?
  • Is the current rate of increase in computing power sustainable?
two types
Two Types
  • Machine Ethics - Concerned with the behavior of artificial moral agents (AMAs)
  • Roboethics- Concerned with the behavior of humans, how humans design, construct, use and treat robots and other artificially intelligent beings
machine ethics
Machine Ethics
  • What is an artificial moral agent?
  • What qualities should robots have in order to be held morally accountable for their actions?
      • Telerobots
      • Autonomy
      • Intentionality
      • Responsibility
      • Self-Motivated, Goal-Driven
  • Why do we care?
  • HAL 9000 / i, Robot
  • Nurse
asimov s laws of robotics
Asimov’s Laws of Robotics
  • A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  • A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  • A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
  • Few problems.
  • Type of harm.
  • Not all humans have equal status.
  • Deadlock.
  • Others.
roboethics
Roboethics
  • What should roboticists keep in mind when developing robots?
  • Is it right for roboticists to create “life?”
  • If a morally accountable robot were to be created, should it be given equal status as humans?
  • What would it take to deserve equal status?
  • What would happen if they were of higher status?
  • Applications: Biotech/Medicine, Military