The 1920s and the Great Depression I. Conservative Supremacy II. Economic Growth and Affluenza III. Stock Market Crash IV. Onset of Depression
Organized labor resented the administration's reaction to the strikes in 1919.
Americans are “tired of issues, sick at heart of ideals, and weary of being noble.” - A Progressive Editor in 1920
Woodrow Wilson “It is only once in a generation that a people can be lifted above material things. That is why conservative government is in the saddle two-thirds of the time.”
Chief Justice William Howard Taft, who announced he had been “appointed to reverse a few decisions.”
Andrew Mellon “The government is just a business and can and should be run on business principles.”
Andrew Mellon on Taxation “One of the foundations of our American civilization is equality of opportunity, which presupposes the right of each man to enjoy the fruits of his labor after contributing his fair share to the support of the government which protects him and his property. But that is a very different matter from confiscating part of his wealth, not because the country requires it for the prosecution of a war or some other purpose, but because he seems to have more money than he needs.”
Revenue Act of 1926 • Lowered Estate Taxes • Repealed the Gift Tax
Calvin Coolidge on Business • “The chief business of the American people is business.” • “The man who builds a factory, builds a temple. . . the man who works there worships.”
Henry Ford I want “to democratize the automobile. When I'm through everybody will be able to afford one, and about everyone will have one.”
Before the assembly line it took Ford workers 12 ½ hours to assemble a car; it took only 93 minutes on an assembly line. By 1927 Ford produced a car every 24 seconds.
Calvin Coolidge considered the regulation of securities the business of the states, not the federal government.
Hoover warned of the evil of “putting the government into business,” and stressed the importance of free enterprise. Hoover and his dog, King Tut
“Unemployment in the sense of distress is widely disappearing. . . . We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land. The poor-house is vanishing from among us. We have not yet reached the goal, but given a change to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, and we shall soon with he help of God be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation.” - 1929
“I have no fears for the future of our country. It is bright with hope.”
Problems in the Economy • Declining Demand • Massive Debt • Unequal Distribution of Wealth
Effects of Mellon’s Tax Policy • Per capita disposable income rose about 9% in the 1920s, • The income of the wealthiest 1% rose 75%, accounting for most of the increase. • 5% of the population accounted for 1/3 of all personal income • The wealthy used most of their money to buy stocks instead of consumer goods.
The crash started a nationwide run on banks, destabilizing the country’s entire financial and economic system.
“Let the slump liquidate itself. Liquidate labor, liquidate stock, liquidate the farmers, liquidate real estate . . . It will purge the rottenness out of the system.” - Andrew Mellon
In 1930 Hoover and Congress cut personal and corporate income taxes.
“Hoover” Acquires New Meanings • Hoover Flag • Hoover Blanket • Hooverville