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Sino- Soviet Relations. How it went down…. Background. Treaty of V ersailles, Shandong, given to Japan. Student protest against “spineless” Chinese government. U.S weak on self-determination and anti-imperialism – Chinese intellectuals start considering M/L to solve issues.

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Sino soviet relations

Sino- Soviet Relations

How it went down…


  • Treaty of Versailles, Shandong, given to Japan. Student protest against “spineless” Chinese government.

  • U.S weak on self-determination and anti-imperialism – Chinese intellectuals start considering M/L to solve issues.

  • Post Qing dynasty warlords ruled – KMT leader Sun Yat-sen ignored by west, turned to soviets.

  • 1922 – CPC – 200 members, KMT 50,000

  • Soviet policy of duel support

  • 1927 Shanghai Massacre – CPC-KMT split.

Civil war 1927 1949
Civil War 1927-1949

  • 1929 Manchurian Chinese Eastern railway – armed conflict with S.U

  • CPC growing popularity – Mao collabs with peasant rebels

  • Long March – Zhang Guotao’s failure – Mao undisputed leader

  • Second Sino-Japanese war – KMT more concerned with CPC – CPC guerrilla tactics against Japs wins more support

  • Soviets give CPC Japanese weapons – U.S keeps Manchuria from communists, helps KMT

  • Outbreak – Chiang and KMT retreat to Taiwan. PRC established

Early relationships
Early relationships

  • 1937 non aggression pact – help against Japanese, enabled Stalin to focus on west

  • Manchuria

  • Treaty of friendship and alliance (1950) – 300 million low-interest loan. Stress on relationship

  • Korean War – Stalin, Mao debate – Mao takes ground, Stalin air – changed relationship from titular to virtual

  • After Civil War, Soviets become PRC closest ally – design, equipment and skilled labour to help industrialize and modernize.

  • 1960’s Sino-soviet border conflict – increasingly PRC began to consider S.U as social imperialist and its greatest threat.


  • As you have read in your text book Stalin and

    Mao did not see eye to eye on a lot of things.

    Ideological differences were not the only reasons what were they?

  • Peasants as a basis for revolution

  • Feared Mao as com leader

  • Did not want CW to spread to Asia

  • Preferred KMT

S eeds

  • In fighting civil war and Japanese – Mao ignored a lot of Stalin’s military advice and direction

  • Because of it’s position there was no urban working class. Why is this a problem?

  • Dawn out of China - “to change Marxism from a European to an Asiatic form... in ways of which neither Marx nor Lenin could dream”. – Due to struggle in Korea alliance continued despite.

  • Mao’s insistence of mobilization through peasant workers – lead to Great Leap Forward

Honeymoon period and khrushchev
Honeymoon period and Khrushchev

  • After Stalin’s death there was a period of reconciliation.

  • Khrushchev put an end to that by criti-

    cising Stalin and therefore Mao.

  • Soviet failure to ‘contain reactionary forces’ ?

  • Restoration of relationship with Josip Broz Tito (Stalin had denounced in 48)

  • De-emphasising of the core M/L idea of inevitable war between capitalism and socialism

  • Peaceful co-existence – ideological heresy

  • Soviet succession by ‘revisionists’

Activity time
Activity time

  • Split into pairs and answer the review exercise on page 120 of your text books.

And then it got humpty dumpty
And then it got Humpty Dumpty…

  • Sino – Indian war, Khrushchev too appeasing to the west.

  • Soviets engaged in superpower confrontations (Berlin)

  • Mao critical of Khrushchev in Cuba – detectable weapons , backing down. “Khrushchev has moved from adventurism to capitulation”

  • Mao’s approach would provoke nuclear war

  • 1964 –Mao claims counter-revolution activity in USSR has re-established capitalism. Split final.

  • Warsaw countries follow Soviet suit.

  • After Khrushchev’s death, relations initially same.

Cold war context
Cold War context

  • Early Cold-War interpretation had a two way ideological competition exclusively between the U.S and USSR. Chinese competition with the USSR and subsequent communist-rivalry transformed the Cold-War into a “tripolar geopolitical contest”.

    Goodwill Commy bastards