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How is the European ingredient industry responding to the new health agenda ? Technical challenges and solutions. ELC Symposium, 21 November 2012 - Brussels Peter de Cock, Global Nutrition and Regulatory Manager, Cargill. Structure of presentation.

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slide1

How is the European ingredient industry responding to the new health agenda? Technical challenges and solutions

ELC Symposium, 21 November 2012 - Brussels

Peter de Cock, Global Nutrition and Regulatory Manager, Cargill

structure of presentation
Structure of presentation
  • Reminder of what we want to achieve: reduce intake of sugars/fats/calories.
  • The overall strategy … and problems for food technicians:
    • Removing fat: the impact on our food…

… and possible solutions

    • Reducing sugar: the challenges…

… and technical options

  • The added opportunities of reformulating foods:
    • Dental health and glycaemic control
    • Enhance nutritional quality
the challenge
The challenge
  • Less sugars, less fats, less calories
    • Reduction of obesity
    • Prevention and control of diabetes
    • Increase healthiness and nutritional value

Challenge: make sugar- and fat-reduced products that provide a good flavor, the right texture and an indulgence factor

slide4

Strategy

Fats

Low/no absorption Olestra

Proteins

Vegetable/Animal Simplesse, wheyprotein

Replacement of oils/fats

Carbohydrates

Starch, maltodextrin, fibers, hydrocolloids

REDUCED CALORIE PRODUCTS

Air

Air, nitrogen, …

Bulksweeteners

Polyols: maltitol, sorbitol, isomalt, …

Replacement of sugars

Acesulfame-K, aspartame, stevia, …

Intense sweeteners

Polydextrose, inulin,

oligofructose, …

Fibers

the implications of removing fat

Air Cell

Liquid Oil

Solid Fat

Sugar Crystal

The implications of removing fat
  • In Cakes/Muffins the shortening
    • Acts as a tenderizing agent
    • Aids in volume expansion (entraps air bubbles)
    • Contributes to flavor
    • Improves eating quality
  • Cake/Muffin batters are mixes in which small fat globules are suspended.
  • This air-fat system plays an important role in texture, volume, and grain

Removing fat will cause collapse of structure of batter and baked products

healthier fats fat modification
‘Healthier fats’/ ‘fat modification’
  • Besides fat reduction, a reduction is desired of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and and increase in mono- and poly-unsaturated fats (MUFA and PUFA)
  • However, SAFA play an improtant role in technical functionality and sensory properties because of their melting point/profile.
  • Fat modification solutions are needed to enable reduction of SAFA in final product.
fat modification solutions
Fat modification solutions

Fractionation

  • Range of fractions out of one product by application of cooling and filtration
  • Fractions with higher melting points

Hydrogenation

  • Chemically changing melting point / pattern (melting curve)
  • Saturation on unsaturated (double) bonds in fatty acid chains via addition of hydrogen
  • Trans formation is inevitable side effect in partially hydrogenated products
  • Not preferred any more
fat modification solutions1
Fat modification solutions

Inter-esterification

  • Re-arrangement of fatty acids over triglycerides
  • Change of melting curve and melting speed and thus physical properties of the oil
  • Wide range of unique new products(fats) with same fatty acid compositions but that however do not exist in nature
slide10

Inter-esterification changes melting profile

Example: Effect on melting profile of Palm versus Palm inter-esterified

solutions
Solutions
  • Creation of harder fats with a higher melting profile, e.g. via interestification, to decrease level of SAFA needed for structure and mouth feel.
  • Balance can be achieved by using higher amounts of liquid oils which have a more nutritionally beneficial fatty acid profile.
  • Production process and recipe of final food products have to be modified as well to achieve an acceptable final product.
slide12

Margarine

Margarines with different melting profiles

Margarine with optimum profile for spreadability

Margarine which is too soft, runny.

Margarine which is too hard, brittle.

slide13

Margarine

  • Improved hardstocks through interesterification
  • Reduction of SAFA
  • Maintaining product melting curve (mouth feel)
  • Trans fats free

SFC (%)

Concentration (%)

slide14

Light butter spread

CALORIE

CALORIE

800

800

Water

16%

Water 66,8%

Control Light

84 vegetable fat 20

precooked modified starch 4.5

gelatin or maltodextrin 7

emulsifier 1

salt 0.7

16 water 66.8

600

600

Lipids

84%

400

400

Glucides

11,5%

Lipids

20%

200

200

W/O emulsion : starch, maltodextrin or gelatine are used to ‘gelify’ the water phase and stabilize it

0

0

implications of removing fat in cream cheese
Implications of removing fat in cream cheese

Full fat

Firm texture

Creamy

No syneresis

50% fat reduced reformulated with inulin as fat replacer

Firm texture

Creamy

No syneresis

50% fat reduced

Loss of texture

Soft - Liquid

Watery

Syneresis (water on surface)

sugar more than a sweetener
Sugar : more than a sweetener

Improves appearance of canned fruit

Speeds growth of yeast

Enhances smoothness & flavour

Absorbs water

Regulates gelling

Incorporates air in baking process

Caramelizes

Delays discoloration

sucrose f unctions in foods some examples
Sucrose functions in foods: some examples

One single sweetener cannot replace all sugar functions,

typically a combination of sweetness ingredients is used

sucrose replacement options
Sucrose replacement options
  • Intense sweeteners
  • Bulk sweeteners
  • Other bulking agents
sugar replacement key applications
Sugar replacement – Key applications
  • Beverages (main application for intense sweeteners)
  • Confectionery (chewing gum, hard candy, soft candy, mints, chocolate, etc.)
  • Bakery (cookies, biscuits, cakes,

pastries, frostings)

  • Dairy (ice cream, yoghurt)
  • Fruit preps and fillings
  • Snacks and puddings
  • Flavored syrups
  • Tabletop sweeteners
  • Pharmaceutical and personal care
options trying to replicate sweetness
Options: trying to replicate sweetness

Polyols – Relative Sweetness

10 % aqueous solution

Polyols generally have a similar sweetness quality to sucrose

intense sweeteners challenges
Intense sweeteners – Challenges

Blending stevia with sucrose: QDA of 10% sucrose equivalent

Sweetness

Drying, astringent

after-feel

Herbal

Bitter

aftertaste

Bitterness

Full cal

Green-herbal

aftertaste

Metallic

Sweet aftertaste

Chemical-medicinal

intense sweeteners challenges1
Intense sweeteners – Challenges

Blending stevia with sucrose: QDA of 10% sucrose equivalent

Sweetness

Drying, astringent

after-feel

Herbal

Bitter

aftertaste

Bitterness

Full cal

50% saving

Green-herbal

aftertaste

Metallic

Sweet aftertaste

Chemical-medicinal

intense sweeteners challenges2
Intense sweeteners – Challenges

Blending stevia with sucrose: QDA of 10% sucrose equivalent

Sweetness

Drying, astringent

after-feel

Herbal

Bitter

aftertaste

Bitterness

Full cal

50% saving

80% saving

Green-herbal

aftertaste

Metallic

Sweet aftertaste

Chemical-medicinal

intense sweeteners challenges3
Intense sweeteners – Challenges

Time-intensity, ~8% SE

100

RESPONSE

(% of peak)

80

STEVIA

60

ASPARTAME

40

SUCROSE

20

0

TIME (arbitrary units)

*Source: Prakash, DuBoiset al, 2008, Food & Chemical Toxicology, 46/7S:S75-S82

lemon lime beverages sensory panel results n 20 30
Lemon/lime beverages: sensory panel results (n=20-30)

Stevia

sweetened

samples

4.5

4

 Samples with 2.5% and 3.5% erythritol scored significantly better than stevia control (0% ERT) and were closest to the sucrose control

3.5

3

2.5

Difference from 8% Sucrose

7 point scale

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0% ERT

0.5% ERT

1.5% ERT

2.5% ERT

3.5%ERT

8% Sucrose

Stevia Control

Control

Sweetness Quality

Overall Flavor

Mouthfeel

Aftertaste

reduction of stevia sweetness lingering
Reduction of Stevia sweetness lingering

All samples at 7% SEV

Stevia

Stevia + 2.5%

erythritol

Sucrose

the added value of sweetness reformulation
The added value of sweetness reformulation

Improved dental health

REDUCED CALORIE PRODUCTS

Replacement of sugars

Polyols

Improved glycaemic control

muffins
Muffins

challenge

solution

Reference

Test 1

Negative control

30% sugar reduced

Taking out sugar : muffin collapses

Positive control

Full sugar

Test 2

30% sugar reduced with rice starch and oligofructose

sugar out fibre in
Sugar out, fibre in …

30% sugar reduction in shortbread cookies

Oligofructose has a sweetness profile similar to sucrose but less sweet (30%)

sugar out fibre in1
Sugar out, fibre in …
  • Taste of the reduced sugar cookie is quite close to the reference (slightly less sweet)
  • Hardness is slightly lower (328 versus 398*)
  • Colour is a little darker

Sugar

30% sugar reduced

shortbread cookie no sugar added
Shortbread cookie: No Sugar added

challenge

solution

Test 1

Test 2

slide32

Light chocolatespread

CALORIE

CALORIE

500

500

Control Light

- skimmedmilk 47

2 milkpowder-

57 sucrose 13.3

- maltodextrin 13

Water

400

400

Water 44%

Protein

4,5%

Glucides

64,5%

20 hazelnutpaste20

6 cacao powder 6

300

300

Protein

6%

14 oil-

1 lecithin-

Glucides

33%

200

200

Lipids

29,3%

Lipids

15%

- xanthan 0.2

- aspartam 0.2

- salt 0.3

100

100

0

0

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Today, there is a growing interest, both among consumers and public policy makers, in improving the nutritional quality of foods in support of healthy eating.
  • Food ingredient manufacturers are active at the forefront
    • taking industry initiatives to respond to these trends
    • developing strategies to help food manufacturers both to reduce calories and improve liking characteristics of food
  • Meeting these demands is not simple. Fats and sugars have numerous taste and technical functionalities. Simply removing fats and sugars is impossible, leaving foods that are not accepted by consumers.
conclusions1
Conclusions
  • Ongoing search and research to develop new solutions is a highly complex process and still much in progress
    • Address main health concerns
    • Resolve application challenges
    • Satisfy evolving consumer needs and expectations
  • When developing European regulations, decision-makers must fully take account of the technical implications of aspiring to improve the nutritional qualities of food.