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Career Guidance for Scheduled Castes and Muslims in India. Challenges and Prospects for addressing Social Exclusion. Anita Ratnam , IAEVG International Careers Conferenece 2011. Contents. Part 1: Why talk about Dalits and Muslims Part 2: Exclusion: Nuances & Implications
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Challenges and Prospects for addressing Social Exclusion
Anita Ratnam, IAEVG International Careers Conferenece 2011
The Caste System
Muslims138 million, 13.4% of population
Islam in India, trade and the first mosque in 629 AD
Mughal Rule established by Babar in 1526 and continued till Colonial Rule
1947 Partition, Violent Exodus
Ghettos and Enclaves post independence
Secular State & Hindu Nation
From Outsiders to Anti Nationals to Terrorists- Myth and Popular Discourse
Caste within Muslims: Ashraf's, Ajlafs and Arzals( Dalit Muslims)
Blame it on them….Muslims are fanatics, Dalits are dumb and dirty… they are the moral underclass…. deserve to be where they are..
Understanding Exclusion- Nuances & Implications…
A Dalit youth who had passed electrical engineering with distinction, was forced to work in a factory for Rs. 2000 a month. His fellow worker was earning the same salary and doing the same work without even finishing his schooling. The first question he was during various interview, “What is your caste?”
Martin Mc Wan , Dalit Shakthi Kendra
When Imrana was raped by a relative, the religious leaders instead she leave her husband, children and work and marry the rapist.. Or face boycott from her community,,
Imranas predicament is a tragic example of how young women are caught between longing for community and identity & their basic human rights and desires…
How Inclusion Boomerangs
Anti reservation movements“ youth for equality” group of upper caste youth
Reservation in the Private Sector: Corporate Social Resistance ( CSR!!)
Reservation within reservation.. ( Madigas /holya caste within caste)
Violent attacks on the successful- gujarat/, coimbatore/,Mangalore/, Badanavalu
Suicides- despair or protest
Laws /policies/programmesVsdeeprooted ideologies and cultures of inequality
How Technology Backfires
Traditional occupations gain respect through new nomenclature/ packaging ( uniforms!) …., but leave out the original “experts”..
Removal of stigma and occupational mobility across castes/religions is a welcome change…
But dangers of new exclusions when technology and capital are out of reach ( Gowda,2011)
Technology and De-skilling of society…
Technology and Work- where is technology needed and where is it deployed?
Work is culturally coded ..Disjuncts between material conditions & cultural codes (Cohen 2006)
Discord between parental models and todays world of work, Parents culture and youth culture creates questionsand parent culture dominates the way work is understood (Nayak 2006)
Do all cultures /communities accept the ‘calculative attitude’ for career building? (Connell, 2000)
Rootlessnessand occupational mobility as postmodern workers expected to constantly re-invent themselves.. The myth of Flexibility (Morgan)
Difficulties of Dalits in Business (Jodhka,2010)
Does it have to be that way?
Can CG Break the cycle of exclusion?
The State of Career Guidance in India todayFrom CET counseling! To NREGA
CG often combined with Scholarships for meritorious poor!
CG guided by a notion of development equated with growth in GDP through industrialisation, modern technology, capitalism, accumulation and global financial flows
The need to liberate “work” from “employment” to encompass multiple modes of surviving , of contributing to others needs is ignored
Development as culture, as civilisation, as happiness, as pluralism, harmony with nature, human compassion are rarely evoked in CG practice…..
By these standards Gujarat (where manual scavenging by Dalits still exists and genocides of Muslims goes unpunished; where dams displaced more than 2 million people) is one of the most “developed “ states in India.
Can we really afford to have CG that rests on such a violent and narrow definition of development?
You cant go to school any more, child, we simply cannot afford it” says Champas grandmother. Champa is silent. Her eyes pleading. Grandma tries again, “Don’t worry dear, we will make you happy by finding you a good boy’…At this Champa bursts out…”how can I find a good boy if I am not educated?”
What is inclusion: A share of the pie? .. Or a new pie?
Is CG, in the “business as usual” mode, really Enough ?
Careers guidance is the engine room of social mobility and social justice.” Dr Deidre Hughes ( ICG). But how do we deal with
The traumatised & terrorised psyche?
The colonised mind? Remember Fanon?
Pride and shame in ones community and culture?
Youth Suicides. As Despair and as Protest?
Young People flirting with terror and crime?
Grappling with distrust, hate and prejudice?
Sensitising the privileged to the rights of the excluded?
Building new visions for self and society?
Theoretical Frameworks that can Guide us
The dalitstudents guidanceportal :http://www.scststudents.org/-creatively combines information, advocacy, rights, support and mentoring to address the “inner mind”
The AzamCampus in Pune : innovative culturally sensitive and critical pedagogies
Promotion of youth work
Developing Youth Studies
Training Youth Workers
Vibrant civil society
CG not a stand alone process, but an integral part of comprehensive youth work
Not based on initially expressed interests or aspirations as they are culturally and economically “programmed”
Providing space to re-think self & Society and then re-define dreams, aspirations and examine fears/ aptitudes
Introduce Career& Livelihood Planning modules only in Step 3
Helping understand politics embedded in work choices, career journeys and workplace issues
Mentoring, helping access scholarships and coaching.
(Ratnam and Issac, Samvada 2011)
Step 1:Reflections on self and society, examination of values & beliefs, aspirations & motivations,
Step 2 :Analysis of social structure and impact of socialisation on relationships, work choices, lifestyles and political affiliations
Step 3: Understanding and Committing to Personal & Societal Change