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In order to change travel behaviour, you must understand people Civitas forum2014

In order to change travel behaviour, you must understand people Civitas forum2014

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In order to change travel behaviour, you must understand people Civitas forum2014

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  1. In order to change travel behaviour, you must understand peopleCivitas forum2014 Rick Lindeman Rijkswaterstaat Netherlands Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  2. Programme • Behavioral Change Models • Case 1: Optimizing use • Behaviour in Civitas+ • Case 2: Funchal • Case 3: Zagreb • Exercise: Customer Journey Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  3. BJ Fogg’s Model BJ Fogg. (2007). [Graphic illustration of the Fogg Behavior Model]. BJ Fogg's Behavior Model. Retrieved from http://behaviormodel.org/. Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  4. Cialdini Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  5. 6 principles • Reciprocity, • Scarcity • Authority, • Consistency, • Liking, • Consensus Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  6. Kahneman • Two systems • System 1: fastdecisionsbased on reptilebrain, experience, emotion • System 2: Slow, Thoughtful Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  7. Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  8. The Dutch programme ‘Optimising Use’ • Smart use of infrastructure • Improving accessibility of 12 urban regions • Cooperation between government, science and industry • Goals: • Improve traffic flows • Reduce congestion • Make travelling safer, less time-consuming, cheaper and more comfortable Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  9. The Dutch programme ‘Optimising Use’ (continued) • 300 projects with measurable outcomes • Tailored to the 12 regions • Mix of solutions, e.g.: • Spread traffic volumes over the course of the day • Promote e-working • Promote the use of alternative transport modes • Innovation: connecting services, behaviour and technology Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  10. To get the best out of the programme,we analysed more than 100 cases Input: • Existing evaluation reports • Primarily cases from projects executed prior to the start of the programme Output: • Qualitative conclusions on behavioural mechanisms • No quantitative conclusions due to poor quality of data Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  11. We used a framework from BIT UK for the analysis Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  12. Outcomes Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  13. It all starts with a good understanding of people’s behaviour Good understanding of current and desired behaviour is a: • Prerequisite • Pre-investment Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  14. Tailor intervention, based on a good understanding Useful ingredients: • Timing Make use of ‘discontinuities’ • Ease Remove any hurdles • Motivation - Make it rewarding (monetary or non-monetary) - Provide feedback - Strengthen will-power - Make experience nice (not unnecessarily harsh) • Social influences Make use of social proof, commitment, etc. • Personal Tailor-made, and try to avoid negative group-think Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  15. An example: ‘Avoid the Peak in Brabant’ • Participants received financial reward if they avoided peak traffic in Den Bosch and Eindhoven • With the ‘personal avoidance plan’, a 27% higher success rate Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  16. Key ingredients of the personal avoidance plan Motivation: • By making a personal avoidance plan, people strengthened their will-power (‘implementation intention’, ‘self persuasion’) • Participants got extra motivated by feedback on their travel behaviour Social factors: • Also feedback on the travel behaviour of others (‘social proof’) • By submitting the plan, people felt themselves committed Personal: • The travel information provided was tailor-made Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  17. Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  18. Invest in monitoring and evaluation • Test-Learn-Adapt, just like BIT UK • Monitoring and evaluation requires preparation • The basis is found in the previous two steps • Only then do you know what to monitor Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  19. Conclusions • ‘Avoid the Peak in Brabant’ is a best practice • In many cases, there is room for improvement • Essential: Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  20. Behaviour in Civitas • Understanding: Zagreb, Funchal, Bologna • Interventions: Gdansk • Results: Utrecht, Gent Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  21. Interventions Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  22. Funchal • Claudio Mantero • Understanding tourist needs Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  23. Lidija Pavic-Rogosic • Listening to the elderly • Zagreb Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  24. Conclusions • An number of interesting cases • Behaviour not the starting element for interventions in Civitas • The evaluation was measure based, not behavioural change based, making it more difficult to reproducte Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  25. Customer Journey • Service DesignThinking • Understanding your customers • Tool for discussion Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  26. Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  27. Elements • Context; describing the situation • Job; was has the customer have to do (show ticket) • Touchpoint: Interaction with the customer • Emotion: how does he feel. • Company actions: What can/did the transport company Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  28. Exercise • Group of 5 (your table) • trip to Casablanca of the oldest at the table • Break the trip in small steps • What did the others learn? • Ideas for improvement? Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

  29. Thank you • Rick Lindeman • +31-6-53926589 • Rick.lindeman@rws.nl • @romanista Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment