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Master Class: 16 th June 2012. Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia. Presentation available at: www2.env.uea.ac.uk/energy/energy.htm www.uea.ac.uk/~e680/energy/energy.htm. Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 5 th October 2007.

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slide1

Master Class: 16th June 2012

Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia

Presentation available at: www2.env.uea.ac.uk/energy/energy.htm

www.uea.ac.uk/~e680/energy/energy.htm

Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal

5th October 2007

Keith Tovey (杜伟贤)M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv

CRed

Energy Science Director: HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation

School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia

slide2

Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia

  • Low Energy Buildings and their Management
  • Low Energy Buildings and their Management
  • Low Carbon Energy Provision
    • Photovoltaics
    • CHP
    • Adsorption chilling
    • Biomass Gasification
    • Coffee Break at 10:05
  • The Energy Tour – Depart at 10:20
  • Biomass Plant
  • CHP
  • ZICER
  • Questions & Answers
  • - Energy Security: Hard Choices facing the UK
slide3

Teaching wall

Library

Student residences

Original buildings

3

slide4

Nelson Court楼

Constable Terrace楼

4

4

slide5

Low Energy Educational Buildings

Nursing and Midwifery School

Thomas Paine Study Centre

ZICER

Elizabeth Fry Building

Medical School Phase 2

Medical School

5

5

slide6

Constable Terrace - 1993

  • Four Storey Student Residence
  • Divided into “houses” of 10
  • units each with en-suite facilities
  • Heat Recovery of body and cooking
  • heat ~ 50%.
  • Insulation standards exceed 2006
  • standards
  • Small 250 W panel heaters in
  • individual rooms.

6

slide7

Educational Buildings at UEA in 1990s

Queen’s Building 1993

Elizabeth Fry Building 1994

Elizabeth Fry Building Employs Termodeck principle and uses ~ 25% of Queen’s Building

7

slide8

The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994

Elizabeth Fry Binası - 1994

Cost ~6% more but has heating requirement ~20% of average building at time.

Significantly outperforms even latest Building Regulations.

Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler.

Maliyeti ~%6 daha fazla olsada, ısınma ihtiyacı zamanın ortalama binalarının ~%20’si.

En son Bina Yönetmeliklerini bile büyük ölçüde aşmaktadır.

Tek bir ev tipi merkezi ısıtma kazanı ile çalışmaktadır.

8

slide9

Conservation: management improvementsKoruma: yönetimde iyileştirmeler

Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption.

Dikkatli İzleme ve Analiz, enerji tüketimini azaltabilir.

.

slide10

Comparison with other buildings

Diğer Binalarla Karşılaştırma

Carbon Dioxide Performance

Karbon Dioksit Performanı

Energy Performance

Enerji Performansı

10

slide11

Non Technical Evaluation of Elizabeth Fry Building Performance

Elizabeth Fry Bina Performansının Teknik Olmayan Değerlendirmesi

User Satisfaction

Kullanıcı memnuniyeti

thermal comfort +28%

air quality +36%

lighting +25%

noise +26%

Isıl rahatlık+%28

Hava kalitesi+%36

aydınlatma +%25

gürültü +%26

Bir Düşük Enerji binası ayrıca içinde çalışmak için de daha iyi bir yerdir.

A Low Energy Building is also a better place to work in.

11

zicer building
ZICER Building
  • Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 57% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control.
  • Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor

Won the Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005

slide13

The ground floor open plan office

The first floor open plan office

The first floor cellular offices

slide14

The ZICER Building –

  • Main part of the building
  • High in thermal mass
  • Air tight
  • High insulation standards
  • Triple glazing with low emissivity ~ equivalent to quintuple glazing
slide15

Operation of Main Building

Regenerative heat exchanger

Incoming air into the AHU

Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space

slide16

Operation of Main Building

Filter

过滤器

Heater

加热器

Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs

空气通过空心的板层

Air enters the internal occupied space

空气进入内部使用空间

slide17

Space for future chilling

将来制冷的空间

The return air passes through the heat exchanger

空气回流进入热交换器

Operation of Main Building

Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement.

Out of the building

出建筑物

Return stale air is extracted from each floor 从每层出来的回流空气

slide18

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs

Warm air

Warm air

Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures

Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment

Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room

Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat.

热量在进入房间之前被传递到空气中

板层储存来自于电器以及人体发出的热量

Winter Day

slide19

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs

Cold air

Cold air

Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures

In late afternoon heating is turned off.

Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room

Slabs also radiate heat back into room

热量在进入房间之前被传递到空气中

板层也把热散发到房间内

Winter Night

slide20

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs

Cool air

Cool air

Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures

Draws out the heat accumulated during the day

Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day

把白天聚积的热量带走。

冷却板层使其成为来日的冷存储器

night ventilation/

free cooling

Summer night

slide21

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs

Warm air

Warm air

Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures

Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space

concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning

空气在进入建筑使用空间前被预先冷却

混凝土结构吸收和储存了热量以减少/停止对空调的使用

Summer day

slide22

Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements

800

350

Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57%

能源消耗(kWh/天)

原始供热方法 新供热方法

slide23

Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings

与其他建筑相比ZICER楼的能量需求

自然通风221508GJ

使用空调384967GJ

建造209441GJ

Materials Production 材料制造

Materials Transport 材料运输

On site construction energy现场建造

Workforce Transport劳动力运输

Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy

基本功暖/供冷能耗

Functional Energy功能能耗

Refurbishment Energy改造能耗

Demolition Energy拆除能耗

28%

54%

51%

34%

29%

61%

slide24

Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings

Compared to the Air-conditioned office, ZICER as built recovers extra energy required in construction in under 1 year.

slide25
Low Energy Buildings and their Management

Low Carbon Energy Provision

Photovoltaics

CHP

Adsorption chilling

Biomass Gasification

The Energy Tour

Energy Security: Hard Choices facing the UK

Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia

25

slide26

ZICER Building

Photo shows only part of top Floor

  • Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays
  • Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays
slide27

Performance of PV cells on ZICER

Output per unit area

Little difference between orientations in winter months

Load factors

Façade:

2% in winter

~8% in summer

Roof

2% in winter

15% in summer

27

slide28

Performance of PV cells on ZICER

All arrays of cells on roof have similar performance respond to actual solar radiation

The three arrays on the façade respond differently

28

slide29

120 150 180 210 240

Orientation relative to True North

29

slide31

Arrangement of Cells on Facade

Individual cells are connected horizontally

Cells active

Cells inactive even though not covered by shadow

If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected.

As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive

31

31

31

31

slide32

Use of PV generated energy

Peak output is 34 kW峰值34 kW

Sometimes electricity is exported

Inverters are only 91% efficient

  • Most use is for computers
  • DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient
  • Need an integrated approach

32

slide33

Performance of PV cells on ZICER

Cost of Generated Electricity

Grant was ~ £172 000 out of a total of ~ £480 000

33

slide34

Efficiency of PV Cells

Poly-crystalline Cell Efficiency

Mono-crystalline Cell Efficiency

  • Peak Cell efficiency is ~ 14% and close to standard test bed efficiency.
  • Most projections of performance use this efficiency
  • Average efficiency over year is 11.1%

Inverter Efficiencies reduce overall system efficiencies to

10.1% and 6.73% respectively

Peak Cell efficiency is ~ 9.5%.

Average efficiency over year is 7.5%

34

slide35

Life Cycle Issues for PV Array on ZICER Building

Carbon Factors for Electricity Production

Spain ~ 0.425 kg / kWh

UK and Germany ~ 0.53 kg/kWh

slide36

3% Radiation Losses

11% Flue Losses

Gas

Exhaust Heat Exchanger

Engine

Generator

36% Electricity

50% Heat

Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP

Localised generation makes use of waste heat.

Reduces conversion losses significantly

36%

61% Flue Losses

86%

Heat Exchanger

uea s combined heat and power
UEA’s Combined Heat and Power

3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat

slide38

Conversion efficiency improvements

Before installation

After installation

This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide

38

slide39

Conversion efficiency improvements

Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA

Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively

More electricity could be generated in summer

39

39

slide40

绝热

高温高压

Heat rejected

High Temperature

High Pressure

节流阀

Compressor

冷凝器

Throttle Valve

Condenser

蒸发器

低温低压

压缩器

Evaporator

Low Temperature

Low Pressure

为冷却进行热提取

Heat extracted for cooling

A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit

slide41

外部热

Heat from external source

绝热

高温高压

Heat rejected

High Temperature

High Pressure

吸收器

Desorber

节流阀

冷凝器

Throttle Valve

Condenser

热交换器

Heat Exchanger

蒸发器

低温低压

Evaporator

Low Temperature

Low Pressure

W ~ 0

吸收器

为冷却进行热提取

Absorber

Heat extracted for cooling

Absorption Heat Pump

Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated

slide42

A 1 MW Adsorption chiller

1 MW 吸附冷却器

  • Uses Waste Heat from CHP
  • provides most of chilling requirements in summer
  • Reduces electricity demand in summer
  • Increases electricity generated locally
  • Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually
slide43

The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power

  • Addresses increasing demand for energy as University expands
  • Will provide an extra 1.4MW of electrical energy and 2MWth heat
  • Will have under 7 year payback
  • Will use sustainable local wood fuel mostly from waste from saw mills
  • Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by ~ 25% despite increasing
  • student numbers by 250%
slide44

Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

Low Energy Buildings

Photo-Voltaics

Low Energy Buildings

  • Absorption Chilling
  • Advanced CHP using Biomass Gasification
  • World’s First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management
  • Low Energy Buildings
  • Effective Adaptive Energy Management
  • Photovoltaics
  • Combined Heat and Power

Absorption Chilling

Efficient CHP

44

44

44

slide45

Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

Photo-Voltaics

Absorption Chilling

Efficient CHP

Advanced Biomass CHP using Gasification

45

45

45

slide46

Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

Efficient CHP

Absorption Chilling

46

46

46

slide47

Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia

  • Low Energy Buildings and their Management
  • Low Carbon Energy Provision
    • Photovoltaics
    • CHP
    • Adsorption chilling
    • Biomass Gasification
    • Coffee Break at 10:05
  • The Energy Tour – Depart at 10:20
  • Biomass Plant
  • CHP
  • ZICER
  • Questions & Answers
  • - Energy Security: Hard Choices facing the UK
slide48

Energy Security is a potentially critical issue for the UK

Import Gap

Gas Production and Demand in UK

Only 50% now provided by UK sources.

Warning issued on 17th April 2012 that over-reliance on Norway and imported LNG from Qatar will lead to price rises by end of year

Severe Cold Spells

Langeled Line to Norway

Oil reaches $130 a barrel

UK no longer self sufficient in gas

Prices have become much more volatile since UK is no longer self sufficient in gas.

slide49

What is the magnitude of the CO2 problem?

How does UK compare with other countries?

Why do some countries emit more CO2 than others?

France

UK

Per capita Carbon Emissions

49

slide51

Electricity Generation Carbon Emission Factors

  • Coal ~ 0.9 kg / kWh
  • Oil ~ 0.8 kg/kWh
  • Gas (CCGT) ~ 0.43 kg/kWh
  • Nuclear 0.01 kg/kWh
  • Current UK mix ~ 0.53 kg/kWh
slide52
r

Electricity Generation i n selected Countries

52

slide53

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Non-Renewable Methods

Nuclear New Build assumes one new station is completed each year after 2020.

?

Carbon sequestration either by burying it or using methanolisation to create a new transport fuel will not be available at scale required until mid 2020s if then

* Energy Review 2011 – Climate Change Committee May 2009

slide54

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

1.5MW Turbine

At peak output provides sufficient electricity for 3000 homes

On average has provided electricity for 700 – 850 homes depending on year

Future prices from

* Renewable Energy Review – 9th May 2011 Climate Change Committee

slide55

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

Climate Change Committee (9th May 2011) see offshore wind as being very expensive and recommends reducing planned expansion by 3 GW and increasing onshore wind by same amount

Scroby Sands has a Load factor of 28.8% - 30% but nevertheless produced sufficient electricity on average for 2/3rds of demand of houses in Norwich. At Peak time sufficient for all houses in Norwich and Ipswich

slide56

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

Micro Hydro Scheme operating on Siphon Principle installed at Itteringham Mill, Norfolk.

Rated capacity 5.5 kW

Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified

slide57

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

Climate Change Report suggests that 1.6 TWh (0.4%) might be achieved by 2020 which is equivalent to ~ 2.0 GW.

Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified

slide58

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

  • Transport Fuels:
  • Biodiesel?
  • Bioethanol?
  • Compressed gas from
  • methane from waste.

To provide 5% of UK electricity needs will require an area the size of Norfolk and Suffolk devoted solely to biomass

Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified

slide59

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified

slide60

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified

slide61

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

Severn Barrage/ Mersey Barrages have been considered frequently

e.g. pre war – 1970s, 2009

Severn Barrage could provide 5-8% of UK electricity needs

In Orkney – Churchill Barriers

Output ~80 000 GWh per annum - Sufficient for 13500 houses in Orkney but there are only 4000 in Orkney. Controversy in bringing cables south.

Would save 40000 tonnes of CO2

Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified

slide62

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified

slide63

Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable

Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified

slide64

Our Choices: They are difficult

  • Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass?.
    • Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 10 - 20 years.
  • [very expensive or technically immature or both]
  • If our answer is NO
  • Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power ?
  • Are we happy with this and the other attendant risks?
  • If our answer is NO
  • Do we want to return to using coal?
    • then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly
    • unless we can develop carbon sequestration within 10 years UNLIKELY – confirmed by Climate Change Committee
    • [9th May 2011]

If our answer to coal is NO

Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>>

slide65

Our Choices: They are difficult

  • If our answer is YES
  • By 2020
    • we will be dependent on GAS
    • for around 70% of our heating and electricity
    • imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria
  • Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>>
  • If not:
  • We need even more substantial cuts in energy use.
      • Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming? - the North Norfolk Coal Field?

Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables?

Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.

We must take a coherent integrated approach in our decision making – not merely be against one technology or another

slide66

Sustainable Options for the future?

  • Energy Generation
  • Solar thermal - providing hot water - most suitable for domestic installations, hotels – generally lees suitable for other businesses
  • Solar PV – providing electricity - suitable for all sizes of installation
  • Example 2 panel ( 2.6 sqm ) in Norwich – generates 826kWh/year (average over 7 years).
  • The more hot water you use the more solar heat you get!
  • Renewable Heat Incentive available from 2012
  • Area required for 1 kW peak varies from ~ 5.5 to 8.5 sqm depending on technology and manufacturer
  • Approximate annual estimate of generation
    • = installed capacity * 8760 * 0.095

hours in year

load/capacity factor of 9.5%

slide67

Our looming over-dependence on gas for electricity generation

Version suitable for Office 2003, 2007 & 2010

  • 1 new nuclear station completed each year after 2020.
  • 1 new coal station with CCS each year after 2020
  • 1 million homes fitted with PV each year from 2020

- 40% of homes fitted by 2030

  • 15+ GW of onshore wind by 2030 cf 4 GW now
  • No electric cars or heat pumps

Offshore Wind

Imported Gas

Oil

UK Gas

Onshore Wind

Existing Coal

Oil

Other Renewables

Existing Nuclear

Existing Coal

New Coal

Data for modelling derived from DECC & Climate Change Committee (2011)

- allowing for significant deployment of electric vehicles and heat pumps by 2030.

New Nuclear

Existing Nuclear

Data for modelling derived from DECC & Climate Change Committee (2011)

- allowing for significant deployment of electric vehicles and heat pumps by 2030.

Data for modelling derived from DECC & Climate Change Committee (2011)

- allowing for significant deployment of electric vehicles and heat pumps by 2030.

67

slide68

It is all very well for South East, but what about the North?

House on Westray, Orkney exploiting passive solar energy from end of February

House in Lerwick, Shetland Isles with Solar Panels

- less than 15,000 people live north of this in UK!

68

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Hard Choices face us in the next 20 years
  • Effective adaptive energy management can reduce heating energy requirements in a low energy building by 50% or more.
  • Heavy weight buildings can be used to effectively control energy consumption
  • Photovoltaic cells need to take account of intended use of electricity use in building to get the optimum value.
  • Building scale CHP can reduce carbon emissions significantly
  • Adsorption chilling should be included to ensure optimum utilisation of CHP plant, to reduce electricity demand, and allow increased generation of electricity locally.
  • Promoting Awareness can result in up to 25% savings
  • The Future for UEA: Biomass CHP Wind Turbines?

"If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."

LaoTzu (604-531 BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher