3 Ways to Include Information in Your Paper Short Quotes, & Paraphrases and how to Cite them Parenthetically (In-Text)
But First a Word about Signal Phrases • A signal phrase lets the reader know that a quote from a source is coming up soon. Wit a short quote , no punctuation is necessary but if it precedes a block quote, it should be followed by a colon. • Signal phrases in this powerpoint are indicated in italics.
Quotes of Fewer than 4 lines of Text: • I can identify with the author when he is stuck at a grade two level of thinking, “For grade two thinking destroys without having the power to create” (Golding 220). • The Author makes a good point, “the team that survives this merry-go-round spectacle of skilled masochism with the fewest incapacitating injuries usually wins” (McMurtry 310).
Format of the Short Quote • Signal phrase introducing the quote followed by a comma, semi-colon, colon, or no punctuation depending on sentence flow. • Exact words from the text in quotation marks with NO punctuation at the end, unless the copied material ends in a question mark or exclamation point • Parenthetical citation including author’s last name and page number(s) where the quote came from then period outside of the final parenthesis.
The Block Quote(Quotes More than 4 Lines): • The author’s point is well taken: (2 tabs) Their [football and war] principles and practices are alike: mass hysteria, the art of intimidation, absolute command and total obedience, territorial aggression, censorship, inflated insignia and propaganda, blackboard maneuvers and strategies, drills, uniforms, formations, marching bands, and training camps. (McMurtry 310)
Format of the Block Quote • Signal Phrase followed by a colon: • 4 or more lines of copied, typed text • Whole Quote is indented 2 tabs • NO quotation marks • Ending period/punctuation in the normal place • Parenthetical citation including the author’s last name and page number(s) where the quote came from. • NO punctuation after the last parentheses • NEVER longer than 2 paragraphs
Paraphrase: Info from text summarized in your own words • Original Text Language • Meditation refers to any of a family of practices in which the practitioner trains his or her mind or self-induces a mode of consciousness in order to realize some benefit. • Meditation is generally an internally invoked, personal practice, which an individual can do by themselves. Prayer beads or other ritual objects may be used during meditation. Meditation may involve invoking or cultivating a feeling or internal state, such as compassion, or attending to a specific focal point. The term can refer to the state itself, as well as to practices or techniques employed to cultivate the state. • There are dozens or more specific styles of meditation practice, the word meditation may carry different meanings in different contexts. Meditation has been practiced since antiquity as a component of numerous religious traditions. • Your Cited Summary • Many people are benefitted by meditation, an activity that allows them to discipline their own brains. It is usually practiced in private, and sometimes people use objects to improve their focus. Meditation can be used to achieve a particular state of mind, such as being compassionate. It takes many different forms and is sometimes connected with religion. (Wikipedia Contributor 1)
Format of the Paraphrase • Regular paragraph form: Indent 1 tab for 1st line afterwards goes to left margin. NO signal phrase. • NO quotation marks • Must be your own words and your own sentence structures; do not just substitute synonyms or imitate the author’s style • If you must use a word or phrase of the author’s put ONLY that in quotes. • Period in the normal spot at the end of the sentence. • Parenthetical citation including author’s last name and page number(s) where the original information came from, then period outside the final parenthesis.
Paraphrase that mentions author In his work, “Thinking as a Hobby,” Golding’s description of his “amoral system” is hilarious, and it is understandable that a system that does away with things like armies and marriage might be unacceptable to today’s establishment (222).
When and Where to Cite • There should be a citation at the end of every paragraph that contains copied/ paraphrased (summarized) information (Lunsford 181). • If you copied/ paraphrased TWO or MORE paragraphs worth of information, there must be a parenthetical citation at the end of each paragraph (Lunsford 181-82). • Unless you mention the author in the immediately prior signal phrase or the quote itself, you must include his/her name in the citation (Lunsford 182).