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Sodium: To salt or not to salt?. Why Sodium?. What is Sodium?. Essential mineral in small amounts Electrolyte Table salt – Sodium and Chloride (NaCl). Function in Body. Helps maintain balance of fluids Helps transmit nerve impulses Influences contraction and relaxation of muscles.

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Presentation Transcript
what is sodium
What is Sodium?
  • Essential mineral in small amounts
  • Electrolyte
  • Table salt – Sodium and Chloride (NaCl)
function in body
Function in Body
  • Helps maintain balance of fluids
  • Helps transmit nerve impulses
  • Influences contraction and relaxation of muscles
function in food
Function in Food
  • Preservatives
    • Inhibits growth of food-borne pathogens
  • Modify flavor
  • Binds ingredients
  • Enhances color
  • Stabilizer
2005 dietary guidelines
2005 Dietary Guidelines
  • 2,300 mg – Healthy Adult
  • 1,500 mg – High blood pressure, kidney disease or diabetes
  • Average American consumes

3,500 mg daily

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sodium/NU00284

high sodium foods
High Sodium Foods
  • Frozen Meals
  • Tomato Sauce
  • Soups
  • Condiments
  • Canned Foods
  • Prepared Mixes
slide8

http://www.quitehealthy.com/nutrition-facts/food-labels/labelL218731.gifhttp://www.quitehealthy.com/nutrition-facts/food-labels/labelL218731.gif

slide9

http://www.quitehealthy.com/nutrition-facts/food-labels/labelL218731.gifhttp://www.quitehealthy.com/nutrition-facts/food-labels/labelL218731.gif

sodium equivalents
Sodium equivalents
  • ¼ teaspoon salt = 600 mg
  • ½ teaspoon salt = 1,200 mg
  • ¾ teaspoon salt = 1,800 mg
  • 1 teaspoon salt = 2,300 mg
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda = 1,000 mg
food labels
Food Labels
  • Sodium Free <5 mg/serving
  • Very Low <35 mg/serving
  • Low Sodium <140 mg/serving
  • Reduced Sodium – Usual sodium level is reduced by 25%
  • “healthy” <480 mg/serving
  • “meal type” <600 mg/serving
fat free healthier
Fat Free Healthier?

Regular Ritz

Reduced Fat

135 mg/16 g

160 mg/15 g

http://www.poundland.co.uk/images/21/original/ritz-crackers.jpg

http://d3hqdt8j93rgvn.cloudfront.net/Image/MEDIUM_8a78c6e02140d93101214442d0bb220c.jpg

campbell s soup
Campbell’s Soup

Regular

Low Sodium

890 mg/can

140 mg/can

http://momcentral.typepad.com/.a/6a00d83452063e69e20120a5254647970c-800wi

http://eatlowsodium.com/osc/images/Campbell%20Chicken%20Noodle%20Soup.jpg

sea salt
Sea Salt
  • Grains obtained from the natural evaporation of seawater
  • Undergoes little or no refining technique which allows it to retain natural traces of other minerals
  • Contains same amount of sodium as table salt
potassium chloride
Potassium chloride
  • Used as a salt substitute
  • Provides the salty flavor and helps extend shelf-life
  • Known to posses a bitter or metallic aftertaste
  • Health risks involved with high intakes
high sodium diet example
High Sodium Diet Example
  • Breakfast

¾ cup Cheerios – 159 mg

1 cup milk – 107 mg

Breakfast bar – 105 mg

  • Lunch

Turkey sandwich

2 slices bread – 205 mg

2 oz turkey – 680 mg

1 slice American cheese – 250 mg

1 Tbsp Mayo – 70 mg

Chips – 120 mg

16 oz coke – 60 mg

  • Dinner

2 cup Cheeseburger Macaroni Hamburger Helper – 1620 mg

  • Total= 3376 mg

(146% over recommended)

low sodium diet example
Low Sodium Diet Example
  • Breakfast

½ cup Oatmeal – 0 mg

Banana – 0 mg

1 cup Cranberry juice – 35 mg

  • Lunch

1 cup pasta – 183 mg

½ cup marinara sauce – 525 mg

Apple – 0 mg

  • Dinner

Chicken breast – 64 mg

2/3 cup brown rice – 10 mg

1 cup asparagus – 5 mg

  • Total = 812 mg
sodium intake and disease
Sodium Intake and Disease

Let’s look at which diseases may be related to high sodium intake.

sodium health links
Sodium health links
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart Disease
  • Stroke
high blood pressure
High blood pressure
  • Also known as hypertension
  • Normal 120/80 mm Hg
  • Pre-Hypertension (120-139)/(80-89) mm Hg
  • Stage 1 Hypertension (140-159)/(99-90) mm Hg
  • Stage 2 Hypertension 160/100 mm Hg
high blood pressure21
High blood pressure
  • Most people have no signs or symptoms
  • Risk Factors:
    • Age – Middle aged men/post menopausal women
    • Race – African American
    • Family History
    • Sedentary Lifestyle
    • High sodium intake/low potassium intake
    • Alcohol and tobacco use
sodium insensitive hypertension
Sodium insensitive hypertension
  • Resistance of blood pressure changes with decreased sodium intake
  • 2007 study, Florida, 45 people, 1 year
  • Goal was to reduce body weight by 7%
    • Restricted diets
    • Brisk walking 150 min/week
  • Salt sensitivity was tested at beginning and end of trial
  • Salt resistant participants were defined by lack of blood pressure lowering after correction of obesity and related metabolic abnormalities
dietary approaches to stop hypertension dash diet study
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet Study
  • 412 Adults assigned to one of the following diets
    • DASH diet: Emphasize fruits, vegetables, low fat dairy products, whole grains, poultry, fish, and nuts
    • Typical US diet
  • Results: The DASH diet significantly lowered blood pressure
  • Long-term health benefits depend on the ability of people to make long-lasting dietary changes and the increased availability of lower-sodium foods
heart disease
Heart disease
  • Number 1 cause of death worldwide
  • Often caused by a buildup of fatty plaques in arteries
  • Risk Factors
    • Age
    • Gender – Men
    • Family History
    • Smoking
    • High blood pressure/cholesterol levels
    • Diabetes and obesity
research study
Research Study
  • Follow-up study previously on a previous population of pre-hypertension adults
  • Individual and group counseling sessions specific to sodium reduction
  • Questionnaire given 10 years later found:
    • Involvement in sodium reduction intervention lowered CVD risk by 25-30%
stroke
Stroke
  • Blood supply to the brain is interrupted or reduced
  • Caused by a blockage in an artery or blood vessel leak or burst
  • Risk Factors:
    • Family History
    • Age – 55 or older
    • High blood pressure/cholesterol
    • Diabetes and obesity
    • Tobacco and alcohol use
at risk populations
At-risk populations
  • High blood pressure
  • Kidney disease
  • Diabetes
  • African American
  • Middle-aged or older
reducing sodium intake
Reducing Sodium Intake

What are some lifestyle changes that you could make to reduce your sodium intake?

ways to reduce sodium intake
Ways to reduce sodium intake
  • Food items without added salts
  • Unsalted nuts, seeds, beans
  • Limit salty snacks (pretzels and chips)
  • Avoid adding salt and canned vegetables to homemade dishes
  • Unsalted and sodium, fat-free broths and soups
  • Skim or 1% milk
  • Low sodium, low fat cheeses
  • Add spices and herbs to enhance taste
  • Add fresh lemon juice instead of salt to fresh vegetables
summary
Summary
  • Sodium has many functions in food
    • flavor, texture, preservation
  • 2005 Dietary Guidelines
    • 2,300 mg per day
  • Read Food Labels
  • High sodium intake linked to high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke