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Sheila McCants Career Counselor Dr. Idelia Phillips Director of Career and Technical Education Manatee Community College Bradenton, Florida. Webinar Objectives Using the MCC 2004 Retention Study on “Perceptions of African American Males” and Diffusion of Innovation Model(s) as Backdrops

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slide1

Sheila McCants

Career Counselor

Dr. Idelia Phillips

Director of Career and Technical Education

Manatee Community College

Bradenton, Florida

slide2

Webinar Objectives

  • Using the MCC 2004 Retention Study on “Perceptions of African American Males” and Diffusion of Innovation Model(s) as Backdrops
  • Participants will:
  • Learn to examine their institutions existing resources in
  • both the academic and student development arenas
  • Learn low-cost marketing strategies for attracting and
  • retaining minority students
  • Share ideas and resources for providing academic & student
  • support to minority students.
  • Contribute to a “best practices” document that will be available to
  • webinar participants after the session.
slide3

General Information

RE: Academic Outcomes of Minority Students

slide5

After Access to EDUCATION, the Most Significant Obstacle to a Minority Student’s Survival in a Global Society is:

RETENTION

slide6

Retention:

Ability of an educational institution to retain a student from admission through graduation

slide7

Attrition:

Inability of an educational institution to retain a student from admission through graduation

slide8

WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT RETENTION (& ATTRITION)

  • Wide Spread Interest
  • Minority Student Rates, particularly Minority Male
  • Retention Rates Continuously Lag Behind White
  • Students
  • Retention Rates Have Changed Very Little over the
  • Past 30 yrs
  • Cost of Attrition = Loss of Revenue
slide9

Cost of Attrition

For a single student taking 12 credit hour per semester:

12 credit hours X $80/credit hour = $960.00

4 semesters @12 credits/semester = $3840.00

Multiply by attrition rate for first-time freshman of 33%

(national attrition average) (For MCC – 3,000 first-time students)

$3840 X 1,000 = a loss of $3,840,000 over 4 semesters

slide10

Other Costs of Attrition

  • Loss of revenue for the bookstore
  • Loss of revenue for the cafeteria
  • Loss of revenue for local businesses
  • Loss of other revenue for other campus entities
  • Loss of revenue to the community
  • Loss of institutional financial aid
  • Cost of recruitment of a replacement student
slide11

Review of the Literature on African American Student Retention:

Summary of the Impact of Certain Social, Financial and Environmental Factors

Females

(+) Academic performance increases with association with academically successful peer

(-) Self-esteem

(-) Social expectations

(-) First-generation

(+) Mentor

slide12

Review of the Literature on African American Student Retention:

Summary of the Impact of Certain Social, Financial and Environmental Factors

Males

(+) Academic performance increases with association with academically successful peer

(+) Mentor

slide13

Review of the Literature on African American Student Retention:

Summary of the Impact of Certain Social, Financial and Environmental Factors

Females/Males

(-) Levels of Parental Support

(-) Limited Resources to pay for college

(-) First-generation

(-) Unprepared academically

(-) Lack of Family/Community Support

(-) Inadequate Financial Aid

(-) Lack of Perception of Long-Term Benefits of Higher Ed

slide15

The MCC 2004

Retention Study on Perceptions of African American Males

slide16

Methodology

  • Independent consultants conducted study
  • Focus groups & phone interviews used to collect data
  • All campuses represented
  • Daytime & evening students included
  • Subjects were men from the African Diaspora (to include Caribbean, African, etc.)
facilitation guide
Facilitation guide

Study questions were generated to guide data-gathering, analysis, and consistency in interpretation

An African American male consultant facilitated each focus group

slide18

StudyQuestions

What guided your decision about attending college?

What guided your decision about attending Manatee Community College?

What assistance did you receive prior to the first day of classes?

What assistance did you receive since classes started?

What services and/or support do you feel you need to complete your academic goals at Manatee Community College?

slide19

Study Results

(Top results for each question)

  • Decision re: College – Family (50%), Need for decent job (43%)
  • Decision re: MCC – Cost (17%), Convenience (21%), Peers/Parents (16%)
  • Assistance Received Prior to 1st Day of Class – NONE (33%)
  • Assistance Received During Semester – Trusted Instructor (51%)
  • Support/Services Needed for Success – Empathetic Staff (57%)
  • Prior Knowledge Needed – From male role model (47%)
  • Reason for non-use of MCC services/resources – Lack of male models and Empathetic staff (61%)
slide20

Recommendations

  • More African-American male faculty and advisors $
  • Diversity training $
  • Implementation of formal support system and workshops/seminars facilitated by African American male professionals $
slide21

Low cost alternative: Brother’s keeper

  • African American Student Union project
  • Male members organized to identify and intervene with FTIC/”at risk” A-A males each semester
  • “At risk” defined by members (personal knowledge, grades, “at risk” habits)
slide22

Brother’s Keeper Development

  • Increase Black male participation in AASU
  • BK activity only extended to those who became members
  • Students identified from Orientation student activity surveys
  • BK training consisted of understanding people, place, publication, and personal resources.
  • Advisor-implemented activities based on development theories from Cross (1971), Akbar (1984, 1991, 1998), Bandura (1977)
slide23

BK Activities

  • “Retention through leadership training”
    • OJT, men took on actual leadership roles
  • “Professional days”
    • dress for success, decision-making, and problem-solving.
  • Social & networking skill development
    • Dinner with motion picture director Spike Lee
    • Private reception with Rev. Jesse Jackson
    • Lecture by Maya Angelou
slide24

BK Activities (cont’d)

  • Personal skill development
    • “Learning better forms of self expression” workshop with Kwabena Dinizulu
    • Lunch meeting with Elaine Brown focusing on the need for Black males to work at overcoming the injustices they will inevitably face
slide25

Results: Anecdotal but positive

  • Active leadership encouraged as leadership and personal skills developed. 2.5 GPA required.
  • MCC AASU produced 4 of the 12 member board of directors for the Florida African American Student Association.
  • 6 male members of AASU participated as Keepers. 8 male students recruited for project. 5 new, 3 returning considered “at risk”.
  • 8 students persisted to the spring term.
slide26

Results (con’t)

  • “at risk” Brothers
    • 3 graduated & transferred to Florida State University, Florida A&M, and USF.
    • 2 transferred (Florida HBCU/Florida CC).
  • 3 remain and are training as “keepers” (including current AASU president)
  • Current BK leadership is has previous criminal background
  • Two parents gave positive feed-back regarding the difference observed in those young men considered “at risk”.
slide27

Greatest Result!!

  • College is institutionalizing the project
  • Currently designing and looking for creative funding resources
  • BK fully functioning by Fall 2009
slide28

This “low cost” alternative was initiated through a student activities organization.

In what areas might you find similar opportunities?

slide29

Theoretical Frameworks and Models for Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating RETENTION INNOVATIONS

slide32

Conditions for Student Retention

Settingsthat expect students to succeed

Settings that provide clear and consistent information about institutional requirements and effective advising

Settings that provide academic, social, and personal support

Settings that involve them as valued members of the institution

Settings that foster learning

Tinto, 2007

slide33

Alan Seidman’s Retention Formula1

RET = E ID + (E + IN + C) IV

1 College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success AlanSeidman (Ed.) Westport, CT: American Council on Education / Praeger, 2005

slide34

Alan Seidman’s Retention Formula

Retention = Early Identification

Early Identification: Before enrollment,

identify the academically and/or Socially “At Risk” Student

slide35

Alan Seidman’s Retention Formula

Retention = Early Identification

+ (Early + Intensive + Continuous) Intervention

  • 1. Create an intervention either prior to or soon after enrollment
  • Create an intervention that is intensive to affect change.
  • Continue the intervention until change occurs.
slide37

Diffusion is the “process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over a period of time among the members of a social system”.

An innovation is “an idea, practice, or object that is perceived to be new by an individual or other unit of adoption”.

Communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another to reach a mutual understanding.

Rogers, 1995

slide38

STAGES IN THE DIFFUSION ADOPTION PROCESS

AWARENESS

INTEREST

EVALUATION/DECISION

TRIAL

ADOPTION

slide39

ADOPTER CATEGORIES

Respectable

Venturesome

Traditional

Deliberate

Skeptical

slide47

RECOMMENDATIONS

for

The Role of Academic and Non-Academic Factors

in

Improving College Retention

slide48

1. Determine student characteristics and needs, set priorities among these areas of need, identify available resources, evaluate a variety of successful programs, and implement a formal comprehensive retention program that best meets institutional needs.

2. Take an integrated approach in retention efforts that

incorporates both academic and non-academic factors into the design and development of programs to create a socially inclusive and supportive academic environment that addresses the social, emotional, and academic needs of students

slide49

Implement an early alert, assessment, and monitoring system

  • based on HSGPA, ACT Assessment scores, course placement tests, first semester college GPA, socioeconomic information, attendance records, and non-academic information derived from formal college surveys and college student inventories to identify and build comprehensive profiles of students at risk of dropping out.
  • Determine the economic impact of their college retention
  • programs and their time to degree completion rates through a cost-benefit analysis of student dropout, persistence, assessment procedures, and intervention strategies to enable informed decision-making with respect to types of interventions required—academic and non-academic, including remediation and financial support.
slide50

5. Implement an early alert, assessment, and monitoring system

based on HSGPA, ACT Assessment scores, course placement

tests, first semester college GPA, socioeconomic information,

attendance records, and non-academic information derived from

formal college surveys and college student inventories to identify

and build comprehensive profiles of students at risk of dropping

out.

slide51

Does your institution utilize a formal strategy for recruiting or retention?

If so, what type of strategy?

slide54

Bibliography

1. Manning, Ed.D, Terri M. et.al., “What Community Colleges are Doing to Meet the Needs of Minority Males in Higher Education”

https://www.cpcc.edu/planning/studies-and-reports/bbcb%20conference%20presentation.ppt –

2. McCants, Sheila and Idelia Phillips, “Preparing Minority Males for Success in a Global Society: Retention Begins At or Before the College Door.: 2008 Presentation, Black, Brown & College Bound Conference.

3. Place-Based Education Evaluation Collaborative, “Diffusion of Innovation Theory Resources”

http://peecworks.org?PEC?PEEC_Gen/100045B6A

4. Hutchinson, Linda (Bristol Community College), “Recruitment/Retention SWOT Analysis.”

slide55

Bibliography

  • 5. Tinto, Vincent, “Taking Student Retention Seriously”
  • http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/fsd/c2006/docs/takingretentionseriously.pdf
  • 6. McCants, Sheila and Idelia Phillips, “Preparing Minority Males for Success in a Global Society: Retention Begins At or Before the College Door” 2008 Presentation, Black, Brown & College Bound Conference, Tampa, FL.
  • 7. Seidman, Alan, “Minority Student Retention: Resources for Pracitioners”
  • http://www.cscsr.org/docs/MinorityStudentRetentionResourcesforPractitioners2006.pdf
  • VERONICA A. LOTKOWSKI, et. al., The Role of Academic and Non-Academic Factors in Improving College Retention.” ACT Policy Report: IC 050804060, 2004
  • http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/college_retention.pdf
slide56

Bibliography

  • Alan Seidman (Ed.), College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success Westport, CT: American Council on Education / Praeger, 2005
  • 10.Robbins, Dr. Rich, “Attrition-Getting Attrition Formula.” Presentation, 2003 NACADA Region 3 Conference, Charleston, South Carolina
slide58

Sheila McCants

Manatee Community College

mccants@mccfl.edu

Idelia Phillips

Manatee Community College

phillii@mccfl.edu