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Soil Physical and Chemical Quality and Management in Organic Production. Hailin Zhang Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University. What makes up soils?. Sand Silt Clay. Soil Is a Living Body. USDA. Soil Properties. Physical Texture Structure Chemical Fertility

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slide1

Soil Physical and Chemical Quality and Management in Organic Production

Hailin Zhang

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences

Oklahoma State University

soil properties
Soil Properties
  • Physical
    • Texture
    • Structure
  • Chemical
    • Fertility
    • pH
    • Soluble salts
  • Biological
    • Microorganism population-life in the soil
slide5

% Silt

% Clay

Clay

Sandy Clay

Silty Clay

Silty Clay

Loam

Clay Loam

Sandy

Clay Loam

Loamy

Sand

Loam

Sandy

Loam

Silt

Loam

Sand

Silt

% Sand

improving soil physical condition
Improving Soil Physical Condition
  • Adding organic material
  • Adding gypsum for alkali soils
ph and buffer index
pH and Buffer Index
  • Soil pH is a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of the soil;
  • Nutrient availability is related to pH;
  • Crops can only grow well in certain pH ranges;
  • Liming is the most economical and effective method to raise soil pH
ph value defines relative acidity or basicity

Ammonia

cleaner

pH value defines relative acidity or basicity

9.0

Strong

Basic

8.0

Medium

Slight

Pure water

7.0

Slight

Most productive soils

Moderate

6.0

Medium

Acid

Strong

5.0

Very strong

4.0

Vinegar

Lemon juice

16 essential elements

Essential Plant Nutrients

16EssentialElements

N Ca

P Mg

C H O

K S

B Cl Cu Fe

Mn Mo Zn

negatively charged colloids attract cations

Negatively Charged ColloidsAttract Cations

Ca++

K+

-

-

-

Soil Colloid

H+

-

-

-

Ca++

-

-

-

Mg++

Na+

clay and organic matter have greatest influence on cec

Clay and Organic Matter Have Greatest Influence on CEC

Organic matter

Clay

10-150 meq/100g

200-400 meq/100g

Organic matter has a higher CEC

(cation exchange capacity)

nutrient balance is the key for success

Nutrient balance is the key for success

Right

nutrients

Improper

nutrients

soil soluble salts affect plant growth
Soil Soluble Salts Affect Plant Growth

EC (mmhos/cm)

0

4

8

12

16

Normal

Saline

ESP

%

Increased salt hazard

15

Sodic

Saline-Sodic

30

over fertilization
Over Fertilization
  • Salts build up in the soil
  • Alters soil pH
  • Unbalanced growth
    • More vegetative, less reproductive growth
    • More disease and less winter hardy
soil tests serve two basic functions
Soil Tests ServeTwo Basic Functions
  • Provide a starting point for developing fertilizer and liming program
  • Monitor nutrient level to keep the fertilizer program on track
soil tests at osu
Soil Tests at OSU

Secondary Nutrients

Sulfur

Magnesium

Calcium

Routine

pH

Buffer Index

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Potassium

Micronutrients

Iron

Zinc

Boron

Soil Organic Matter, Soil Texture, Soil Salinity

Compost, Animal Manure, Irrigation Water

summary
Summary
  • Soil properties are important for plant growth
  • There are 16 essential plant nutrients
  • Soil testing is important for successful organic production
  • An representative sample is needed to ensure reliable test results
  • Balanced fertilizer program is critical
slide26
Soil, Water and Forage Analytical Laboratory
  • http://www.soiltesting.okstate.edu