The Learning Environment. Dr. Steve Training & Development INP6325. The Learning Environment. The learning environment includes:. Trainee Readiness. Transfer. Learning Principles. Trainee Readiness.
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Training & Development
The learning environment includes:
Trainee Readiness - Trainees won’t learn if they don’t want to (motivation) or can’t (prerequisite KSAs)
Design of Training Environments
Relevance of SLT to training:
Social Learning Theory
Goal Setting– goals serve to motivate trainee to exert effort in order to attain goal
Goal Setting Empirical Results
Do your best
Specific hard goal
From Latham & Baldes (1975), “The Practical Significance of Locke’s Theory of Goal Setting,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, p.123
Expectancy Theory (VIE) – trainees will exert effort if they believe they can succeed and they value the outcome
Effort Performance Reward Goal
Expectancy – belief that performance is related to effort
Instrumentality – belief that performance will be rewarded
Valence – the degree that reward is valued
Reinforcement Theory – Based on “Law of Effect” that if consequences of a behavior are good, the likelihood of repeating that behavior is increased.
Time (Minutes)Trainee Readiness Theories of Learning and Motivation
Schedules of Reinforcement
PhysiologicalTrainee Readiness Theories of Learning and Motivation
Need Theories – Training only motivating if it meets the needs of trainees
Equity Theory -A social comparison theory that asks, “Is the ratio of what you receive from your job as compared to what you put in the same proportion as that of other workers?”
Gagne’s Instructional Theory – Different categories of things to be learned require different learning conditions.
ACT* Model of Learning – three stage model of progression from novice to expertise
Fleishman’s Task Taxonomy– particular KSAs necessary to conduct a task may change throughout the course of the task
Massed vs. Distributive Practice
Organizers – Cues that allow learner to take advantage of existing knowledge
Whole vs. Part task learning
Mental Models – how people mentally represent the task they are performing
Feedback – knowledge of results (KOR)
Schmidt & Bjork (1992) challenge the basic tenets of feedback – focus on maximizing training performance may be harmful in long run
Transfer of Training – how well learning in one environment, enhances performance in another.
Maximize transfer by:
Qualities of a good trainer
Checklist for instructor preparedness