History of the Climate Negotations Jennifer L. Morgan WWF September 2005 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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History of the Climate Negotations Jennifer L. Morgan WWF September 2005

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History of the Climate Negotations Jennifer L. Morgan WWF September 2005

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  1. History of the Climate Negotations Jennifer L. Morgan WWF September 2005

  2. Role of the Science - IPCC • All along the process, the IPCC Assessment Reports have played a crucial role in providing the basis for negotiations • Continues to be under attack due to this pivotal role

  3. Brief history of the far past • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ARTICLE 2 Ultimate objective to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interferencewith the climate system ... within a time frame sufficient to allow: • ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change • ensure that food production is not threatened • enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner

  4. Brief history of the far past • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change • Divided the world in two – Annex I and non-Annex I • Industrialised countries • „Developing countries“ – G77&China • OPEC • AOSIS • China • Africa • Etc etc

  5. Brief history of the far past • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change • Annex I adopted a voluntary „aim“ to return emissions to 1990 levels by 2000 • Annex I will „take the lead“ • „Common but differentiated responsibility“ • All will do national communications but at different speeds and level of detail • All will implement policies • Review of the adequacy of commitments

  6. COP1 1995 • Article 4.2 (a) and (b) – the voluntary “aim” is inadequate • Berlin Mandate to launch the next round of negotiations to be completed in 1997 • Annex I to negotiate quantified emission limitation and reduction obligations (QELROs) • No new commitments for developing countries

  7. COP2 1996 • IPCC Second Assessment Report came in • Declaration on the IPCC footnoting a few countries that were recalcitrant • Clinton Administration stated support for targets and timetables approach • EU moved from Policies and Measures to Targets and timetables

  8. COP 3 KYOTO 1997 • Absolute Mandatory Targets and Timetables for Annex I • 5.2 % below 1990 levels by 2008-2012 • 6 gases • Framework on Sinks but no details, offsetting role • Flexible mechanisms (USA) • Emissions trading • Joint Implementation • Clean Development Mechanism

  9. COPs4-7 Finalising the rules • Complex set of negotiations on how the various flexible mechanisms should work • Sinks – which activities, how much for whom • CDM – what kinds of projects, how to get them going etc • Reporting requirements • Accounting framework – how to count it and monitor it • Compliance mechanism – Binding or not, how to make it work

  10. The Hague (6), Bonn (6bis) and Marrakech (7) • November 2000 Collapse in The Hague while wait to see who the next US President will be…. • March 2001 Bush rejects Kyoto • Breaks campaign pledge to cap CO2 from power plants • Cites economic unfairness and China and India not having to do anything as key reasons • Commits, after much pressure, in Goteborg EU-US Summit not to block efforts on the Kyoto Protocol • John Howard follows shortly thereafter but announces they will meet their target

  11. The Hague, Bonn and Marrakech • July 2001 Countries come together in Bonn and agree to move forward without the US „A Day for Multi-lateralism“ • November 2001 Countries finalise complex rules in Marrakech Accords • Meanwhile the Bush Administration sets intensity target and beings to create a series of technology partnerships as an „alternative“ to Kyoto

  12. Entry into force • Major effort especially in Canada, Japan and Russia with different strategies in each country • February 16th, 2005 entered into force • Montreal is the first meeting of the Kyoto Protocol AND COP11 of the UNFCCC • Adopt all the decisions about the Kyoto Protocol • Launch the next round of negotiations on the post-2012 regime

  13. Thank you! morgan@wwf.de