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Water. The Hydrologic Cycle. “Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s for fighting over.” Western saying. The Critical Need: Water. Global Water. Ocean (Salty) 97.2 % Fresh Water 2.8 % Ice 2.15% Liquid 0.65% Groundwater 0.62% Lakes 0.009% Soil Moisture 0.005% Streams and Rivers 0.001%

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Water


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Water

    2. The Hydrologic Cycle

    3. “Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s for fighting over.”Western saying

    4. The Critical Need: Water

    5. Global Water • Ocean (Salty) 97.2 % • Fresh Water 2.8 % • Ice 2.15% • Liquid 0.65% • Groundwater 0.62% • Lakes 0.009% • Soil Moisture 0.005% • Streams and Rivers 0.001% • Atmosphere 0.0001%

    6. Why Not Use Sea Water? • Desalination now provides 1% of world drinking water • Distillation (Energy intensive) • Passive distillation (Slow, inefficient) • Reverse Osmosis (Filters delicate, prone to clogging and contamination) • Towing Antarctic Icebergs (Not done yet, but the numbers are promising)

    7. Surface Water, Bosnia

    8. Dams • Irrigation • Urban water supply • Hydroelectric power • Flood control • Recreation

    9. Impacts of Dams • Human dislocation • Habitat Destruction • Terrestrial • Aquatic • Disruption of natural cycles • Sediment Starvation • Increased Evaporation • Conflict • Division of Water • Denial as weapon

    10. Yangtze Gorge

    11. Three Gorges Dam, China

    12. Three Gorges Dam, China

    13. Three Gorges Dam, China

    14. Three Gorges Dam Locks

    15. Three Gorges Dam Locks

    16. Open Spillway

    17. Sierra Foothills, California

    18. O’Shaugnessy Dam, California

    19. O’Shaugnessy Dam, California

    20. O’Shaugnessy Dam, California

    21. Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, California

    22. Owens Valley, California

    23. Mono Lake, California

    24. Tufa Pinnacles, Mono Lake

    25. San Bernardino, California

    26. The Aral Sea

    27. Prehistoric Aral Sea?

    28. The Aral Sea • Once world’s 4th largest lake • Roughly area of Lake Michigan, but only 20% of its volume • Complex history of natural diversion and dessication • Pleistocene filling from north? • Fed only by Syr Darya until Holocene • Amu Darya captured ca. 10,000 years ago.

    29. Aral Sea 1957-2006

    30. Aral Sea 1957-2006

    31. Aral Sea 1957-2006

    32. Aral Sea 1957-2006

    33. Aral Sea 1957-2006

    34. Aral Sea 1957-2006

    35. Aral Sea, 2006

    36. Aral Sea, 2009

    37. The Aral Sea Disaster • Effects • < ¼ of original area • Destruction of fisheries • Respiratory illness from wind-blown salts • Solutions? • Ideally, stop irrigating • Dam off northern lakes and restore • Canal from Siberia?

    38. Some Places Have Too Much Water

    39. New Orleans

    40. Dangers of Cheap Work

    41. Missed It By That Much

    42. That Much

    43. Aquifers

    44. Impacts of Groundwater Use • Aquifer depletion • Lowering of water table • Drying of wells • Danger to springs and wetlands • Invasion of contaminants • Ground subsidence

    45. Green Bay Case Study Deep Aquifers of the Green Bay Area

    46. Green Bay Groundwater Pumping 1880-1960

    47. Green Bay Water Table 1880-1960

    48. Green Bay Piezometric Surface1957 1960

    49. Green Bay Piezometric Surface1957 2003