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Supplement Slides

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  1. Supplement Slides Wilbur EALing 2012

  2. Brentari Model

  3. ReduplicationSept 15

  4. Klima & Bellugi (1979) Approach • Templates contain information about shape, direction, speed, and possible endpoints of movement • Each template involves some of the available features • For the most part, the choice of features and arrangement of each template is arbitrary • Take lexical item, apply an aspectual modification template, which can then be input into another aspectual modification template

  5. Wilbur, Klima, & Bellugi (1983) observations: • Claims 7 and 8: Template modifications divide into two categories: spatial and temporal • Spatialmodifications semantically affect predicate arguments • Temporalmodifications semantically affect the predicate itself

  6. Spatial Layout: Planes, directions, geometry & cyclicity

  7. K&B chart of suggested features for temporal modifications

  8. K&B’s view of these features: • They observe one correlation: “end-marking” with change of state

  9. Features mapping to meanings

  10. My Claims 9-12 • End-marking is not a feature of reduplicated forms • End-marking reflects the final state of an event • End-marking reflects lexical telicity (e.g. ARRIVE, SIT, FIND, DIE) • End-marking may be provided by the Resultative (changes atelic to telic).

  11. Resultative as Transition-Creating Morphological Function • Transitions • To become sick (Resultative) T E1¬E2 S S en ei end-marking -sick sick change in speed

  12. Achievement of final state • The resultative modification is a morphological function that focuses on the attainment of a final state (s) at the end of some amount of time (t), shown by “not short” movement. • The end-marking (hold, contact) occurs when the change reaches the final state [sick] from [¬sick]. • The speed changes from slow to fast. This change reflects “change of state”.

  13. Summary: Events and Movements • Repetition is different from reduplication • End-marking reflects final state of telic event • Resultative creates telic events from atelic events by putting them in opposition (E1, ¬E2) • Change of speed in Resultative marks change of state • Neither end-marking nor Resultative formation involve reduplication

  14. ASL Argument structure • Verb agreement • None (“plain verbs”) • Object agreement • Subject-object agreement • *Subject-only agreement • Generally conveyed by spatial location(s)

  15. Exhaustive multiple object Process/activity Individuals (x)

  16. More Claims 16-19 • Distributive quantification over arguments • EACHx • Number in set X more than 2; otherwise Dual • xi,…xn are represented by points in spacei…n • Each act of giving stops at each recipient x • Result: repeated stops at multiple points in sequence

  17. Individual variable (x) viewed from set theory (or reasonable facsimile) • Argument number • Number of set members = 1, 2, or more (plural) • Argument organization • Unordered set / Ordered set • 2-d (time line) / 3-d (volume, over time) • Argument quantification • Collective / Individuated • Indefinite / Definite/Specific

  18. Predictions • Linear sequence (ordered) • Individuated x (‘each’) • Seriated event sequences (ei,ej…en) • Exhaustive/distributive • Randomized (Unordered) • Spatial array (e over t), volume • Individuated, indefinite • Allocative

  19. Definite/Specific vs. indefinite Allocative = acts (e) of giving over time (t) Individuated (x, e, t), not linearly ordered, specific (x) Individuated (e, t), not linearly ordered, indefinite

  20. Summary re: Arguments • Distributive Quantification • Quantifier EACH over individual variables x in a set • Stopping movement at point indicates variable x • The cardinality must be more than 2, otherwise Dual • Minimum of 3 semantically necessary, number above 3 irrelevant • Hence number of repetitions above 2 is indeterminate • Hence, possibility of uncountable ‘trill’ movement

  21. Time between events • Essentially no time between discrete events = “incessant” – can’t tell where one event ends and next begins • May be reasonable time between events = clear return from final position of last event to initial position of next event, “habitual” • Extended times between events = semi-circular path between end of one event and start of another, “iterative”

  22. Incessant – no time between events; no clear start and end time of event Habitual – clear start and end time of event; time between events not relevant Iterative - clear start and end time of event; significant time between events

  23. Time between events An act of ‘looking at’ in progress = Process Long(er) acts of “looking at” with time passing in between – ‘was looking at and looking at and …’

  24. “Quality” Durational “does not convey temporal extent,” merely ongoing process; Continuative means “for a long time,” which is a frame adverbial that indicates temporal extent of the event. Temporal extent is conveyed by elongation of the movement.

  25. “Manner” A long event with no clear start or end Start of event Time between events End of event

  26. Event time • Event time may be shown by: • A movement from one position to another (transitions) • The positions need not be meaningful morphemes themselves. • Semantically, the positions indicate start and end state • An ongoing movement (processes) • No movement (state) • Transitional movement to and from target position (e.g. SICK) but no lexically meaningful movement

  27. … and time between events • Significant time between events is shown by geometric circles, semicircles, ellipses; the return cycle

  28. Reduplication Summary 1 • There are strong correlations between semantic variables/event structure and phonological forms in ASL predicate formation. • The previous templatic treatment of reduplication can be seen to mask the semantic compositionality of the phonological forms. • The pieces can be put together based on semantics, creating a form that can then be repeated by REDUP

  29. More: A feature geometry for Reduplication

  30. Relevant Features • [repeat] • [return] • Number of repetitions and argument number • The feature [2h] • [alternate] • [horizontal/vertical] • Return to [return] • The interface of aspectual reduplication and argument structure • “Embedding” of reduplication

  31. [Repeat]

  32. Number of repetitions and argument number GIVE-distrib 5X

  33. [2h] - dual

  34. [2h] [+/-alt]

  35. [hor/vert]

  36. Return to [return] 1: telics

  37. Return to [return] 2: atelics

  38. Interaction with arguments: Allocative determinate (x, e, t) GIVE, [2h], [alt], unordered

  39. Allocative indeterminate

  40. Summary

  41. Non-manual markingSept 16

  42. Use of face • Multiple channels of information • Distinction between emotional/affective and grammatical usage • Face divided into upper and lower • Upper face  clausal • Lower face  phrasal

  43. Squint for ‘small amount’; shoulder up/shorten neck for ‘small’ Reading sentence on card FEW STUDENTS Is she disgusted? Mouthing /stu/ Is she stressed? Is she in pain? READ BOOKS Is she sad? neutral mouth – not hard or easy Is she relieved? What does her face say?

  44. NO GIRL BUY THAT DRESS ‘None of the girls bought that dress.’ DRESS LIKE-NOT WHY BUY ‘If you don’t like that dress, why buy it?’ Negation

  45. Complexity of the problem Regions that the face can be divided into 14 potentially separate articulators Combinations of articulations and physical and linguistic constraints.

  46. Complexity of the problem

  47. Articulator Vertical (x axis: Up/Down) Horizontal (y axis: R/L) In/Out (z axis) Body (leans) X X (backward/forward) Head X X  ? Eyebrows X Eyelids X Eyes (gaze) X X Nose X Cheeks X (puff/suck) Lips: Upper X Lips: Lower X X X (pout) Lips: Both X (open/close) X (pursed) Lip corners X X (stretch) Tongue X X X (forward) Teeth X X X (forward) Chin X (forward thrust) Complexity of the problem

  48. Neutral face Inner up Outer up ASL ‘br’ S0 AU1 AU2 AU 1+2 Tools for Analysis Facial Action Coding System (FACS) Paul Ekman, Ph.D., Wallace V. Friesen, Ph.D., Joseph C. Hager, Ph.D.

  49. Nonmanuals may be layered • Predicate aspectual inflection [I:continuous] • Predicate adverbial modification 'mm‘: • form: lips pressed together • meaning: ‘with pleasure or enjoyment’ • Upper face (brows raised), head (head forward) and body (lean forward) marking for the question ('q') • On only two signs! q mm (1) MAN FISH[I:continuous] (Liddell 1978) 'Is the man fishing with relaxation and enjoyment?'