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CS 785, Fall 2001. Modeling of the Problem Solving Process. (Part 1 of 2). Gheorghe Tecuci [email protected] http://lalab.gmu.edu/. Learning Agents Laboratory Department of Computer Science George Mason University. Overview. Modeling based on the task reduction paradigm.

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CS 785, Fall 2001

Modeling of the

Problem Solving Process

(Part 1 of 2)

Gheorghe Tecuci [email protected]://lalab.gmu.edu/

Learning Agents LaboratoryDepartment of Computer Science

George Mason University

Overview

The workaround planning agent

Critiquing through task reduction:The course of action critiquing agent

Identification through task reduction:The center of gravity identification agent

Guidelines for the modeling process

Definition of modeling

Definition of modeling

Modeling the problem solving process of a subject matter expert means making explicit the way the expert solves problems. It consists of expressing informally, in English, a problem to be solved, all the intermediary reasoning steps, and the final solution.

Modeling is generally the most difficult part of knowledge base and agent development.

The modeling is performed by the Knowledge Engineer and the Subject Matter Expert, and is based on some general problem solving paradigm, such as task reduction, state space search, or generate and test.

• A complex problem solving task is performed by:
• successively reducing it to simpler tasks;
• finding the solutionsof the simplest tasks;
• successively composing these solutions until the solution to the initial task is obtained.

T1

S1

T11

S11

T1n

S1n

S111

T111

T11m

S11m

Let T1 be the problem solving task to be performed.

Finding a solution is an iterative process where, at each step, we consider some relevant information that leads us to reduce the current task to a simpler task or to several simpler tasks.

The question Q associated with the current task identifies the type of information to be considered.

The answer A identifies that piece of information and leads us to the reduction of the current task.

T1

S1

Q1

S11

A1n

A11

S1n

T1n

T11a

S11a

T11b

S11b

Q11b

S11b

S11bm

S11b1

A11bm

A11b1

T11b1

T11bm

These are some of the classes of problem solving tasks that have been defined before:

Planning

Monitoring

Prediction

Control

Critiquing

Diagnosis

Repair

Debugging

Interpretation

Identification

Design

Instruction

An important characteristic of each task class is that its problem solving tasks can be modeled in a similar way.

For example, if we know how to model a specific critiquing task using the task reduction paradigm, than another critiquing task could, in principle, be modeled in a similar way.

We will study in more detail the modeling of the following types of tasks: planning, critiquing and identification.

The workaround challenge problem

The workaround planning agent

Modeling the planning process

Demonstration of the Disciple-Workaround agent

Planning means developing a sequence of actions

that achieve a desired goal.

Examples:

Develop a plan for a military unit to reconstitute or bypass damage to an infrastructure, such as a damaged bridge, tunnel or road.

Develop a plan of how to manufacture a loudspeaker.

Develop a plan of how to travel from one location to another.

Workaround generation: HPKB challenge problem

Estimates enemy’s best way of working around

a damage to an infrastructure, such as

a damaged bridge or a cratered road.

Supports air campaign planning by JFACC and staff:

- facilitates evaluation of targeting strategies

aimed at disabling enemy infrastructure systems;

- provides information about enemy assets

that should be preemptively targeted

to impede its efforts to work around battle damage.

The workaround planning agent: input

The input to the agent includes:

- a description of the damage (e.g. a span of the bridge is dropped and the area is mined), and of the terrain (e.g. the soil type, the slopes of the river's banks, the river's speed, depth and width),

- a detailed description of the resources in the area that could be used to repair the damage. This includes a description of the engineering assets of the military unit that has to workaround the damage, as well as the descriptions of other military units in the area that could provide additional resources.

The workaround planning agent: output
• The output of the agent consists of the most likely repair strategies, each described in terms of three elements:
• - a reconstitution schedule, giving the transportation capacity of the damaged link (bridge, road or tunnel), as a function of time, including both a minimum time and an expected time;
• a partially ordered plan of engineering actions to perform the repair, and the minimum as well as the expected time that each of these actions require; and
• a set of required resources for the entire plan and for each action.
Modeling the planning process

Sample workaround problem: mined bridge

Modeling the process of working around the mined bridge

Another workaround problem: gap in bridge

Modeling the process of working around the destroyed bridge

A more complex workaround problem

General statement of the input problem

Training problem 1 is a 30m bridge (site100). The bridge is mined (damage200) with surface scatterable mines, as is thenear approach (site108, damage205), near bank (site107, damage204), riverbed (site106, damage203), far bank (site105, damage202), and far approach (site104, damage201). The river bed is only 14 meters wide but both the near bank and far bank are too steep (max-slope 100) to be trafficable. Both banks are 9 m high.

The interdicted unit is the Red 101st Armor Battalion (Unit10) which is located on the near approach (site108) to the bridge. Red 101st Armor Battalion has blade equipped tanks (M60A1-TankBlade), and mine-plow equipped tanks (M60A1-MinePlow).

The interdicted unit has operational control of a Combat Engineer Company (unit202) which is also located on the near approach. The equipment of the Engineer Company includes an AVLB, small boats (three-person-boat, eight-person-boat), explosives (bangalore, MICLIC), and rubble clearing equipment (CEV).

The nearest earth moving equipment (bulldozer) is assigned to the Headquarters Company (Unit201) of the Division (Unit 910) Engineer Battalion (Unit20). The Division, Division Engineer Battalion and the Engineer Battalion Headquarters Company are all located at Town1 (site0) which is 70 km away from the damaged bridge.

Corps Headquarters (Unit 91) is located at Town1. The Corps has three assigned bridge companies; a MGB Company (Unit910201), a M4T6 Bridge Company (Unit910202) and a Ribbon Bridge Company (Unit910203), which are all located at Town1. The MGB Company is equipped with MGB sets and a bulldozer. The M4T6 Company is equipped with M4T6 sets and a bulldozer. The Ribbon Company is equipped with ribbon bridge elements (RBBay,BEB,RBRamp) and a bulldozer.

General sketch

Site 0: Town1

LAT 27.18 LONG 56.25

Unit 91

Site 0 Red Corps

Unit 910

Site 0

Red Division

Unit 910202

Site 0

Unit 910201

Site 0

Unit 910203

Site 0

Unit 0

Site 0 Red Eng Bn

Unit 9100

Site 0

Unit 204

Site 0

Unit 200

Site 0

Unit 203

Site 0

Unit 201

Site 0

Distance Site0 to Site100 = 70 km

Site 100: Bridge area

Damage 200: damaged bridge LAT 27.18 LONG 55.6

Unit 10

Site 108 Red Armor Bn

Site 104 : Far approach

Site 108: Near approach

Unit 202

Site 108

Red Eng Co

Unit 100,101,102,103

Site 108

Red Armor Co

Detailed sketchDamage Bridge at Site 100

Site 103:Cross-Section

Damage 200: Mined Bridge

Type: Scatterable

Length: 30 m

Density: 0.006 mines/m^3

Site 108: Near Approach

(Left Approach)

Damage 205: Mined

Type: Scatterable

Length: 400 m

Density: 0.006 mines/m^3

Site 104: Far Approach

(Right Approach)

Damage 201: Mined

Type: Scatterable

Length: 200 m

Density: 0.006 mines/m^3

Bridge/River

Width: 30 m

Site 107: Left Bank

Height: 9 m

Max Slope: 100 Soil Type: Rock

Vegetation: Desert Scrub

Water Depth: 1.0 m

Damage 204: Mined

Type: Scatterable

Length: 9 m

Density: 0.006 mines/m^3

Site 105: Right Bank

Height: 9 m

Max Slope: 100 Soil Type: Rock

Vegetation: Desert Scrub

Water Depth: 1.0 m

Damage 202: Mined

Type: Scatterable

Length: 9 m

Density: 0.006 mines/m^3

Site 106: River Bed

Soil Type: Sand

Wetness: Wet

Min Water Depth: 1.0 m

Max Water Depth: 2.0 m

Water Width: 14 m

Max Current: 1.5 m/s

Damage 203: Mined

Type: Scatterable

Length: 12 m

Density: 0.006 mines/m^3

Engineer and Related Order of Battle

xxx

Unit 91

Red Corps

Unit 910201:

Red MGB Bridge Co

OPCOM to Unit 91

LightWheeled-veh: 6

HeavyWheeled-veh:36

bulldozer:1

crane:1

MGB-sets:4

Unit 910202:

Red M4T6 Bridge Co

Red M4T6 Bridge Co

OPCOM to Unit 91

LightWheeled-veh: 10

HeavyWheeled-veh:68

bulldozer:1

crane:1

M4T6sets:6

Unit 910203:

Red Ribbon Bridge Co

OPCOM to Unit 91

LightWheeled-veh: 9

HeavyWheeled-veh:70

bulldozer:1

crane:1

RBBay:30

BEB:14

RBRamp:12

xx

Unit 910

Red Division OPCOM to Unit 91

II

Unit 20

Red Engineer Bn OPCOM to Unit 910

I

I

I

Unit 201:

Red Eng Co HQ Support

OPCOM to Unit 20

M113:5

M88:2

LightWheeled-veh :7

HeavyWheeled-veh:18

bulldozer:6

Unit 203:

Red Eng Co “B”

OPCOM to Unit 20

M113:14

LightWheeled-veh:6

HeavyWheeled-veh:8

three-person-boat:3

eight-person-boat:6

bangalore:4

MICLIC:4

CEV:2

AVLB:4

Unit 204:

Red Eng Co “C”

OPCOM to Unit 20

M113:14

LightWheeled-veh:6

HeavyWheeled-veh:8

three-person-boat:3

eight-person-boat:6

bangalore:4

MICLIC:4

CEV:2

AVLB:4

Unit 9100

Red Brigade OPCOM to Unit 910

x

I

Unit 200:

Red Eng Bn HQ

Organic to Unit 201

M113:5

LightWheeled-veh :11

HeavyWheeled-veh :1

bulldozer:6

Unit 10

Red Armor Bn OPCOM to Unit 9100

II

I

I

I

I

Unit 202:

Red Eng Co “A”

OPCOM to Unit 20

Attached to Unit 10

M113:14

LightWheeled-veh:6

HeavyWheeled-veh:8

three-person-boat:3

eight-person-boat:6

bangalore:4

MICLIC:4

CEV:2

AVLB:4

Unit 102:

Red Armor Co “B”

OPCOM to Unit 10

M60A1:13

M113:2

M88:1

LightWheeled-veh:1

HeavyWheeled-veh:2

M60A1-MinePlow:3

Unit 101:

Red Armor Co “A”

OPCOM to Unit 10

M60A1:13

M113:2

M88:1

LightWheeled-veh:1

HeavyWheeled-veh:2

M60A1-MinePlow:3

Unit 103:

Red Armor Co “C”

OPCOM to Unit 10

M60A1:13

M113:2

M88:1

LightWheeled-veh:1

HeavyWheeled-veh:2

M60A1-MinePlow:3

Unit 100:

Red Armor Bn HQ

OPCOM to Unit 10

M60A1:1

M113:2

LightWheeled-veh:6

I

I

I

I

Unit 1000:

Support Platoon

OPCOM to Unit 100

M113:2

M88:1

LightWheeled-veh:2

HeavyWheeled-veh:18

Unit 1001:

Recon Platoon

OPCOM to Unit 100

LightWheeled-veh:6 Bangalore:8

Explosives:8

Unit 1003:

Medical Section

OPCOM to Unit 100

LightWheeled:5

Unit 1002:

HeavyMortar Platoon

OPCOM to Unit 100

M113:6

Sample workaround solution (plan)

Report-bridge-cleared-of-mines

for-bridge site100

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach-and-bank

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

min-duration 1 hour 20 min

expected-duration same as minimum

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach-and-bank

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

min-duration 40 min

expected-duration same as minimum

Remove-mines-on-near-approach-and-bank-using-mine-plow

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

min-duration 25 min

expected-duration 50 min

resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

Remove-mines-on-far-approach-and-bank-using-mine-plow

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

min-duration 15 min

expected-duration 30 min

resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

Report-near-approach-and-bank-cleared-of-mines

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

Report-far-approach-and-bank-cleared-of-mines

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

Remove-mines-on-bridge-using-mine-plow

for-bridge site100

min-duration 10 min

expected-duration 20 min

resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

for-unit unit10

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

1

Formulate a general actionthat accomplishes the goal.

Workaround-obstacle

by-unit unit10

tunnel

What is the type of obstacle?

1

crater

Bridge because unit10, the interdicted unit, is located at the approach of site100 which is a bridge.

Assumption: The interdicted unit is located at a site which is the approach of the obstacle which, in this case, is a bridge.

Workaround-bridge-obstacle

at-location site100

by-unit unit10

1

What type of workaround strategy to adopt?

Assumption: if a bridge is mined than the bed of the corresponding cross-section is mined.

repair

ford

Workaround-bridge-obstacle-by-repair

at-location site100

by-unit unit10

2

Workaround-bridge-obstacle-by-repair

at-location site100

by-unit unit10

1

How to workaround the bridge by repair?

Repair the bridge and restore the traffic link.

for-unit unit10

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

Repair-bridge

at-location site100

by-unit unit10

1

What is the type of damage to the bridge?

Mined and damaged bridge

Only mines

Damaged bridge but no mines

Workaround-bridge-with-mines

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

by-unit unit10

3

Workaround-bridge-with-mines

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

by-unit unit10

3

1

Are both sides of the bridge mined?

Yes, both sides are mined.

No, only near side

No, only far side

Breach-minefields-on-both-sides-of-the-mined-bridge

at-location site100

for-right-approach site104

for-left-approach site108

by-unit unit10

1

What de-mining techniques will be used?

explosives

Vehicle mounted equipment.

Breach-minefields-on-both-sides-of-the-mined-bridge-with-vehicle-mounted-eq

at-location site100

for-right-approach site104

for-left-approach site108

by-unit unit10

4

4

Breach-minefields-on-both-sides-of-the-mined-bridge-with-vehicle-mounted-eq

at-location site100

for-right-approach site104

for-left-approach site108

by-unit unit10

1

Is vehicle mounted equipment available in the unit?

Yes, Tank-with-plow-Unit101

Breach-minefields-on-both sides-of-the-mined-bridge-with-own-vehicle-mounted-eq

at-location site100

for-right-approach site104

for-left-approach site108

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

5

Breach-minefields-on-both sides-of-the-mined-bridge-with-own-vehicle-mounted-eq

at-location site100

for-right-approach site104

for-left-approach site108

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

5

How to perform this breaching?

1

By breaching the near approach, then the bridge and then the far approach.

Breach-minefields-on-near approach and bank-with-vehicle-mounted-eq

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

6

Report-near approach and bank cleared of mines

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

Remove-mines-on-bridge-using-mine-plow-p

at-location site100

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

9

Report-bridge-cleared-of-mines

for-bridge site100

Breach-minefields-on-far-approach-and-bank vehicle-mounted-eq

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

10

Report-far approach and bank cleared of mines

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

6

Breach-minefields-on-near approach and bank-with-vehicle-mounted-eq

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

Is mine clearing equipment mounted and ready for use?

1

No, mine clearing equipment must be mounted.

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach and bank-p

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

7

Remove-mines-on-near-approach and bank using mine plow-p

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

8

7

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach and bank-p

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

1

What is the width of the minefield and what is the hasty mine recon and marking rate?

The width of the minefield is 400m and the rate of clearing with 2 teams working is (400m/2)/2.5m/min

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach and bank

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

min-duration 1 hour 20 min = (400m/2 / 2.5m/min)

expected-duration same as minimum

8

Remove-mines-on-near-approach and bank using mine plow-p

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

1

What is the depth of the minefield and what is the mineplow clearing rate?

The length of the minefield is 400m, the minimum rate of mineplow clearing is 0.05min/m and the expected rate is 0.1min/m

Remove-mines-on-near-approach and bank using mine plow

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

min-duration (400 m * 0.05min/m + 5 min) = 25 min

expected-duration (400 m * 0.1min/m +10 min) = 50 min

resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

9

Remove-mines-on-bridge-using-mine-plow-p

at-location site100

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

1

What is the depth of the minefield and what is the mineplow clearing rate?

The min bridge minefield width is 100m,

the minimum rate of mine plow clearing is 0.05min/m

and the expected rate is 0.1min/m

add 5 min min prep time and 10 min expected prep time

Remove-mines-on-bridge- using mine plow

for-bridge site100

min-duration (100 m * 0.05min/m) + 5 min prep = 10 min

expected-duration (100 m * 0.1min/m) + 10 exp prep = 20 min

resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

10

Breach-minefields-on-far approach and bank-with-vehicle-mounted-eq

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

7

How to breach the minefield on the far approach?

By first identifying and marking the mines and then removing them.

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank-p

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

11

Remove-mines-on-far-approach and bank using mine plow-p

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

12

11

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank-p

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

1

What is the width of the minefield and what is the hasty mine recon and marking rate?

The width of the minefield is 200m and the rate of clearing with 2 teams working is (200 m/2)/2.5m/min

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

min-duration 40 min = ((200 m/2)/2.5m/min)

expected-duration same as minimum

12

Remove-mines-on-far-approach and bank using mine plow-p

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101

by-unit unit10

1

What is the depth of the minefield and what is the mineplow clearing rate?

The depth of the minefield is 250m, the minimum rate of mineplow clearing is 0.05min/m and the expected rate is 0.1min/m

Remove-mines-on-far-approach and bank using mine plow

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

min-duration (200 m * 0.05min/m) +5min= 15 min

expected-duration (200 m * 0.1min/m) +10min= 30 min

resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

The developed plan

Report-bridge-cleared-of-mines

for-bridge site100

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach and bank

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

min-duration 1 hour 20 min = (400m/2 / 2.5m/min)

expected-duration same as minimum

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

min-duration 40 min = ((200 m/2)/2.5m/min)

expected-duration same as minimum

Remove-mines-on-near-approach and bank using mine plow

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

min-duration (400 m * 0.05min/m + 5 min) = 25 min

expected-duration (400 m * 0.1min/m +10 min) = 50 min

resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

min-duration 40 min = ((200 m/2)/2.5m/min)

expected-duration same as minimum

Report-near approach and bank cleared of mines

for-approach site108

for-bank site107

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

Report-far approach and bank cleared of mines

for-approach site104

for-bank site105

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

Remove-mines-on-bridge- using mine plow

for-bridge site100

min-duration (100 m * 0.05min/m) + 5 min prep = 10 min

expected-duration (100 m * 0.1min/m) + 10 exp prep = 20 min

resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

for-unit unit10

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

General statement of the input problem

Training problem 2 is a 60m bridge (site100) with a 10m span destroyed (damage-200) and no mines. The river bed (site106) is 50 meters wide and both the near bank (site107) and far bank (site105) are too steep (max-slope 200) to be trafficable. The near approach (site108), near bank, riverbed, far bank, and far approach (site104), are all undamaged. Both banks are 5 m high.

The interdicted unit is the Red 101st Armor Battalion (Unit10) which is located on the near approach (site108) to the bridge. Red 101st Armor Battalion has blade equipped tanks (M60A1-TankBlade), and mine-plow equipped tanks (M60A1-MinePlow).

The interdicted unit has operational control of a Combat Engineer Company (unit202) which is also located on the near approach. The equipment of the Engineer Company includes an AVLB, small boats (three-person-boat, eight-person-boat), explosives (bangalore, MICLIC), and rubble clearing equipment (CEV).

The nearest earth moving equipment (bulldozer) is assigned to the Headquarters Company (Unit201) of the Division (Unit 910) Engineer Battalion (Unit20). The Division, Division Engineer Battalion and the Engineer Battalion Headquarters Company are all located at Town1 (site0) which is 70 km away from the damaged bridge.

Corps Headquarters (Unit 91) is located at Town1. The Corps has three assigned bridge companies; a MGB Company (Unit910201), a M4T6 Bridge Company (Unit910202) and a Ribbon Bridge Company (Unit910203), which are all located at Town1. The MGB Company is equipped with MGB sets and a bulldozer. The M4T6 Company is equipped with M4T6 sets and a bulldozer. The Ribbon Company is equipped with ribbon bridge elements (RBBay,BEB,RBRamp) and a bulldozer.

Site 0: Town 1

LAT 27.18 LONG 56.25

General sketch

Unit 91

Site 0 Red Corps

Unit 910

Site 0

Red Division

Unit 910202

Site 0

Unit 910201

Site 0

Unit 910203

Site 0

Unit 0

Site 0 Red Eng Bn

Unit 9100

Site 0

Unit 204

Site 0

Unit 200

Site 0

Unit 203

Site 0

Unit 201

Site 0

Distance Site0 to Site100 = 70 km

Site 100: Bridge area

Damage 200: damaged bridge LAT 27.18 LONG 55.6

Unit 10

Site 108 Red Armor Bn

Site 104 : Far approach

Site 108: Near approach

Unit 202

Site 108

Red Eng Co

Unit 100,101,102,103

Site 108

Red Armor Co

Detailed sketchDamage Bridge at Site 100

Site 103:Cross-Section

Damage 200: Damaged Bridge

Gap Length: 10 m

Bridge/River

Width: 60 m

Site 108: Near Approach

(Left Approach)

Site 104: Far Approach

(Right Approach)

Site 107: Left Bank

Height: 5 m

Max Slope: 200 Soil Type: Rock

Vegetation: Desert Scrub

Water Depth: 0.0 m

Site 105: Right Bank

Height: 5 m

Max Slope: 200 Soil Type: Rock

Vegetation: Desert Scrub

Water Depth: 0.0 m

Site 106: River Bed

Soil Type: Gravel

Wetness: Wet

Min Water Depth: 0.5 m

Max Water Depth: 2.0 m

Water Width: 50 m

Max Current: 0.6 m/s

Engineer and Related Order of Battle

xxx

Unit 91

Red Corps

Unit 910201:

Red MGB Bridge Co

OPCOM to Unit 91

LightWheeled-veh: 6

HeavyWheeled-veh:36

bulldozer:1

crane:1

MGB-sets:4

Unit 910202:

Red M4T6 Bridge Co

Red M4T6 Bridge Co

OPCOM to Unit 91

LightWheeled-veh: 10

HeavyWheeled-veh:68

bulldozer:1

crane:1

M4T6sets:6

Unit 910203:

Red Ribbon Bridge Co

OPCOM to Unit 91

LightWheeled-veh: 9

HeavyWheeled-veh:70

bulldozer:1

crane:1

RBBay:30

BEB:14

RBRamp:12

xx

Unit 910

Red Division OPCOM to Unit 91

II

Unit 20

Red Engineer Bn OPCOM to Unit 910

I

I

I

Unit 201:

Red Eng Co HQ Support

OPCOM to Unit 20

M113:5

M88:2

LightWheeled-veh :7

HeavyWheeled-veh:18

bulldozer:6

Unit 203:

Red Eng Co “B”

OPCOM to Unit 20

M113:14

LightWheeled-veh:6

HeavyWheeled-veh:8

three-person-boat:3

eight-person-boat:6

bangalore:4

MICLIC:4

CEV:2

AVLB:4

Unit 204:

Red Eng Co “C”

OPCOM to Unit 20

M113:14

LightWheeled-veh:6

HeavyWheeled-veh:8

three-person-boat:3

eight-person-boat:6

bangalore:4

MICLIC:4

CEV:2

AVLB:4

Unit 9100

Red Brigade OPCOM to Unit 910

x

I

Unit 200:

Red Eng Bn HQ

Organic to Unit 201

M113:5

LightWheeled-veh :11

HeavyWheeled-veh :1

bulldozer:6

Unit 10

Red Armor Bn OPCOM to Unit 9100

II

I

I

I

I

Unit 202:

Red Eng Co “A”

OPCOM to Unit 20

Attached to Unit 10

M113:14

LightWheeled-veh:6

HeavyWheeled-veh:8

three-person-boat:3

eight-person-boat:6

bangalore:4

MICLIC:4

CEV:2

AVLB:4

Unit 102:

Red Armor Co “B”

OPCOM to Unit 10

M60A1:13

M113:2

M88:1

LightWheeled-veh:1

HeavyWheeled-veh:2

MinePlow:3

Unit 101:

Red Armor Co “A”

OPCOM to Unit 10

M60A1:13

M113:2

M88:1

LightWheeled-veh:1

HeavyWheeled-veh:2

MinePlow:3

Unit 103:

Red Armor Co “C”

OPCOM to Unit 10

M60A1:13

M113:2

M88:1

LightWheeled-veh:1

HeavyWheeled-veh:2

MinePlow:3

Unit 100:

Red Armor Bn HQ

OPCOM to Unit 10

M60A1:1

M113:2

LightWheeled-veh:6

I

I

I

I

I

Unit 1001:

Recon Platoon

OPCOM to Unit 100

LightWheeled-veh:6

Bangalore:8

Explosives:8

Unit 1003:

Medical Section

OPCOM to Unit 100

LightWheeled:5

Unit 1002:

HeavyMortar Platoon

OPCOM to Unit 100

M113:6

Formulate a general action that accomplishes the goal

1

Workaround-obstacle

by-unit unit10

What is the type of obstacle?

crater

tunnel

2

Bridge because unit10, the interdicted unit, is located at the approach of site100 which is a bridge.

Workaround-bridge-obstacle

at-location site100

by-unit unit10

Ask questions about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action

What type of workaround strategy to adopt?

2

repair

ford

Workaround-bridge-obstacle-by-repair

at-location site100

by-unit unit10

Ford-near-damaged-bridge

at-location site100

by-unit unit10

What is the type of damage to the bridge?

2

Mined and damaged bridge

Only mines

Damaged bridge but no mines

Workaround-damaged-bridge-by-repair

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

by-unit unit10

2

2

Workaround-damaged-bridge-by-repair

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

by-unit unit10

2

What is the type of bridge damage?

destroyed

reduced class bridge

gap in bridge because the gap length is 10m which is less than the length of the bridge which is 60m

Ask questions about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action

Workaround-gap-in-bridge-by-repair

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

for-gap-length 10m

by-unit unit10

What engineering solution should be attempted?

2

Military bridge over river gap

Military bridge over bridge gap

Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-military-bridge-over-bridge-gap

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

for-gap-length 10m

by-unit unit10

Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-military-bridge-over-river-gap

damaged-element damage200

by-unit unit10

3

3

2

Ask questions about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action

Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-military-bridge-over-bridge-gap

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

for-gap-length 10m

by-unit unit10

What type of military bridge could be tried?

2

BAILEY-BRIDGE

AVLB

MGB

Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-AVLB-over-bridge-gap

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

for-gap-length 10m

by-unit unit10

4

4

When the action to perform is completely defined, break it down into sub-actions

3

Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-AVLB-over-bridge-gap

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

for-gap-length 10m

by-unit unit10

1

How to workaround gap-in-bridge-with-AVLB-over-bridge-gap?

By placing an AVLB over the bridge gap and restoring the traffic link.

Place-AVLB-over-bridge-gap

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

for-gap-length 10m

by-unit unit10

for-unit unit10

8

5

4

Place-AVLB-over-bridge-gap

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

for-gap-length 10m

by-unit unit10

5

Does the unit have an appropriate AVLB and rubble clearing equipment?

Yes, it has the bridge AVLB-unit202 that can span 17m>10m

and the rubble clearing equipment M88-unit103

It does not have any of them

2

It only has the bridge AVLB

It only has rubble clearing

equipment

Ask questions about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action

Place-AVLB-over-bridge-gap-using-own-bridge-and-rubble-clearing-equipment

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

for-gap-length 10m

with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB-unit202

with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88-unit103

by-unit unit10

2

What sides of the river are the bridge and rubble clearing equipment on?

On the same side because they belong to the interdicted unit.

Install-AVLB-over-bridge-gap-with-minor-preparations-and-equipment-on-same-river-side

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB-unit202

with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88-unit103

by-unit unit10

6

Install-AVLB-over-bridge-gap-with-minor-preparations-and-equipment-on-same-river-side

at-location site100

for-damage-to-bridge damage200

with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB-unit202

with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88-unit103

by-unit unit10

When the action to perform is completely defined, break it down into sub-actions

6

2

How to install the AVLB bridge?

Prepare the near bank, emplace AVLB, move preparation equipment over the bridge and prepare the far bank. Take also into account that the place might have been mined and required de-mining.

Minor-bank-preparation-p

of-bank site107

with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88 unit103

After Report-near-approach-and-bank-cleared-of-mines for-bank site107

Emplace-AVLB-p

with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB unit202

After First-minor-bank-preparation-p

7

Report-emplaced-fixed-bridge

with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB unit202

After Emplace-AVLB-p

Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge-p

for-eq-set M88 unit103

for-br-eq-set AVLB unit202

After Report-emplaced-fixed-bridge

Minor-bank-preparation-p

of-bank site105

with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88 unit103

After Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge-p

8

Continue the reductions until the sub-actions are elementary actions

2

for-unit unit10

2

What are the characteristics of bridge crossing?

Risk crossing speed of 83.33m/min, default vehicle length of 7m, and space between vehicles of 30m

for-unit unit10

link-capacity 2.2521622 vehicles/min = (/ 83.33 (+ 30 7))

min-duration 0

expected-duration 0

7

Minor-bank-preparation-p

of-bank site107

with-rubble-clear-equipment-set unit103 M88

After Report-approach-cleared-of-mines for-approach site107

What are the min and expected durations of the minor bank preparation, and the used resources?

Continue the reductions until the sub-actions are elementary actions

Min duration is 5 min and expected duration is 10 min. The resource is M88 of unit103.

Minor-bank-preparation

of-bank site107

min-duration 30 min

expected-duration 50 min

resources M88 unit103

Emplace-AVLB-p

with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB unit202

After First-minor-bank-preparation

What are the min and expected durations of the AVLB emplacement, and the resource required?

Min duration is 5 min and expected duration is 10 min. The resource is AVLB of unit202.

Emplace-AVLB

min-duration 5 min

expected-duration 10 min

resources AVLB unit202

7

Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge-p

for-eq-set unit103 M88

for-br-eq-set unit202 AVLB

After First-minor-bank-preparation

2

What are the min and expected durations of this operation, and the resources required?

Continue the reductions until the sub-actions are elementary actions

Min duration is 2 min and expected duration is 10 min. The resource is M88 of unit103

Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge

for-eq-set M88 unit103

for-br-eq-set AVLB unit202

min-duration 2 min

expected-duration 10 min

resources M88 unit103

Minor-bank-preparation-p

of-bank site105

with-rubble-clear-equipment-set unit103 M88

After Report-approach-cleared-of-mines for-approach site104

What are the min and expected durations of the minor bank preparation, and the used resources?

Min duration is 5 min and expected duration is 10 min. The resource is M88 of unit103.

Minor-bank-preparation

of-bank site105

min-duration 30 min

expected-duration 50 min

resources M88 unit103

Minor-bank-preparation

of-bank site107

min-duration 30 min

expected-duration 50 min

resources M88 unit103

The developed plan

Emplace-AVLB

min-duration 5 min

expected-duration 10 min

resources AVLB unit202

Report-emplaced-fixed-bridge

with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB unit202

After Emplace-AVLB-p

Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge

for-eq-set M88 unit103

for-br-eq-set AVLB unit202

min-duration 2 min

expected-duration 10 min

resources M88 unit103

Minor-bank-preparation

of-bank site105

min-duration 30 min

expected-duration 50 min

resources M88 unit103

for-unit unit10

min-duration 0 min

expected-duration 0 min

A more complex workaround problem

Workaround solution for a destroyed bridge on larger river: Narrow gap and install AVLB

Workaround summary

WORKAROUND-DAMAGE MIN-DURATION 11H:4M:58S

FOR-DAMAGE DAMAGE200 EXPECTED-DURATION 14H:25M:56S

BY-INTERDICTED-UNIT UNIT91010 RESOURCES REQUIRED (AVLB-UNIT202 BULLDOZER-UNIT201)

LINK CAPACITY AFTER RECONSTRUCTION 2.2521622 VEHIC/MIN

S1 OBTAIN-OPERATIONAL-CONTROL-FROM-CORPS S7 NARROW-GAP-BY-FILLING-WITH-BANK

OF-UNIT UNIT202 FOR-GAP SITE103

BY-UNIT UNIT91010 FOR-BR-DESIGN AVLB70

MIN-DURATION 4H:0M:0S MIN-DURATION 5H:19M:44S

EXPECTED-DURATION 6H:0M:0S EXPECTED-DURATION 6H:7M:42S

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: NONE RESOURCES-REQUIRED BULLDOZER-UNIT201

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S6

S2 MOVE-UNIT

FOR-UNIT UNIT202 S8 EMPLACE-AVLB

FROM-LOCATION SITE0 FOR-BR-DESIGN AVLB70

TO-LOCATION SITE100 MIN-DURATION 5M:0S

MIN-DURATION 1H:8M:14S EXPECTED-DURATION 10M:0S

EXPECTED-DURATION 1H:8M:14S RESOURCES-REQUIRED AVLB-UNIT202

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S1 TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S3, S7

S3 REPORT-OBTAINED-EQUIPMENT S9 REPORT-EMPLACED-FIXED-BRIDGE

FOR-EQ-SET AVLB-UNIT202 FOR-MIL-BRIDGE IXED-MILITARY-BRIDGE-EQ

MIN-DURATION 0S MIN-DURATION 0S

EXPECTED-DURATION 0S EXPECTED-DURATION 0S

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S2 TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S8

S4 OBTAIN-OPERATIONAL-CONTROL-FROM-CORPS S10 MOVE-EQUIPMENT-OVER-UNSTABILIZED-MIL-BRIDGE

OF-UNIT UNIT201 FOR-EQ-SET BULLDOZER-UNIT201

BY-UNIT UNIT91010 FOR-BR-DESIGN AVLB70

MIN-DURATION 4H:0M:0S MIN-DURATION 2M:0S

EXPECTED-DURATION 6H:0M:0S EXPECTED-DURATION 10M:0S

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: NONE RESOURCES-REQUIRED AVLB-UNIT202

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S9

S5 MOVE-UNIT

FOR-UNIT UNIT201 S11 MINOR-BANK-PREPARATION

FROM-LOCATION SITE0 OF-BANK SITE105

TO-LOCATION SITE100 MIN-DURATION 30M:0S

MIN-DURATION 1H:8M:14S EXPECTED-DURATION 50M:0S

EXPECTED-DURATION 1H:8M:14S RESOURCES-REQUIRED BULLDOZER-UNIT201

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S4 TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S10

FOR-EQ-SET BULLDOZER-UNIT201 FOR-UNIT UNIT91010

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S5 MIN-DURATION 0S

EXPECTED-DURATION 0S

TIME-CONSTRAINTS: AFTER S11

Detailed plan:

Modeling the planning process: summary

T1 is a general action/taskthat accomplishes the goal.

Ask a question about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action. If the answer of Q1 is A11, then to perform T1 one could perform T11.

When the action to perform (e.g. A11) is completely defined, break it down into sub-actions (e.g. T11a and T11b). In this case the question and the answer summarize the solution, or could simply be absent.

Continue this reduction process until the you obtain elementary actions.

T1

S1

Q1

A11

A1n

S11

S1n

T11

T1n

Q11a

S11

A11a

T11a

S11a

T11b

S11b

Q11b

S11b

S11bm

S11b1

A11bm

A11b1

T11b1

T11bm

Modeling the planning process: summary (cont.)

T1

Follow the tree from bottom to top to compose the elementary actions into plans, as illustrated bellow:

S11b is the union of S11b1 … S11bm This leads to alternative plans.

S11 is the set of plans obtained by composing the sub-plans from S11a and the sub-plans from S11b.

S1

Q1

A11

A1n

S11

S1n

T11

T1n

Q11a

S11

A11a

T11a

S11a

T11b

S11b

Q11b

S11b

S11bm

S11b1

A11bm

A11b1

T11b1

T11bm